Pure, Natural Coca Leaf – A Healing Gift Of The Divine Plant

Leave a comment

The Beginnings Of Widespread Opium Use In The US

(From): “Opium & The Opium Appetite” by Alonzo Calkins, 1870

Ed. Note: This short chapter begins Dr. Calkins’ in-depth discussion of Opium use in the US in the 1800’s. Please keep in mind that when he wrote in 1870 a lot of what we see today was still in its infancy. For example, the Cocaine addiction epidemic of the 1880’s and 90’s was barely underway, and while Opium was beginning to become well-entrenched,  Morphine and Heroin addiction were just getting started. The US was still largely a frontier nation in 1870 but, as Dr. Calkins notes, Opium use was becoming common even in the remote wide open spaces of the American West. And, as you can see from one of the graphics in this post, some of today’s Pig Pharma companies were hard at work addicting people even 150 years ago.

Chapter III: The Opium Record For The United States

“Nee vates Helenus, quum multa horrenda canebat, Hos mihi praedixit luctus, non dira Celseno” – Virgil.

“If the trumpet utter an indistinct sound, who shall equip himself for the campaign?” – St. Paul.

The Height Of Fashionable Recreation

For the Western hemisphere as well as for the Far East, India is the great storehouse, our own supplies being procured mediately, and through English marts. Disturbances in trade incident to the Rebellion did not materially embarrass the commerce in opium. For the present duties are, on opium, $2.50 per pound, $2.50 the ounce on morphine, and on smoking opium and the extract 100 percent ad valorem; and, as for prices, they have been doubled twice over. In 1869 opium went up for awhile to $17.50 the pound, and morphine to $11.50 per ounce.

But we have not wound up the log-reel yet. Excessive cost has given a powerful impetus to stealthy contrivances in evasion of law. In the opinion of Mr. D. C. Robbins (a prominent importing druggist of New York), expressed after careful inquiry and consultation, there should be added to the customs returns, at the lowest, 25,000 pounds. The number of China Coolies resident on the Pacific frontier (1867) is rated by Cronise, upon a semi-official estimate, at 60,000 – almost all adult males. For several years there have been made for this class express importations of the smoking-opium. The amount for 1867 was 50,550 pounds, representing in equivalency 92,250 pounds of solid opium. The cost of such importation was in 1860 (the first year) $280,000; in 1867, $374,000. An addition to the custom-house entries of ten percent, to be credited to smuggling, would be a good deal within the mark unquestionably; for every month about there is a fresh immigration of Coolies into San Francisco, who invent all sorts of ingenious contrivances to get within the gate of their El Dorado, without challenge from scrutinizing tide-waiters.

In the summer of 1869 there was discovered, among the personnel of a newly-arrived shipload, an amount liable to confiscation which at auction brought $15,000. Another seizure, made about a year after, netted two-thirds as much. Such are but specimens of what are liable to be repeated, on every monthly arrival. The dutiable amount, with the ten percent added, makes a daily ration of 24 grains, equal to 1/2 of a drachm of crude opium for every pigtail of their number, the year round.

Opium eating, viewed as a national habit, may be reckoned to have taken its departure from 1840. At this time opium was still on the free-list, and prices ranged low, but for all, the importation was very moderate, simply sufficing for outside legitimate call. Estimated upon such basis, the equivalent for 1867 is 53,000 pounds, leaving an overplus of 93,000 pounds, an excess of 75 percent upon that number altogether unaccounted for.

Another exhibit

Upon a comparison of opinions entertained by eighteen prominent apothecaries of New York City, as ascertained through individual and independent inquiry, half of the opium sold by retailers would cover all the prescriptions of physicians proper; and 5 percent besides, excepted from the entire as an extra allowance for the various nostrums afloat, would be liberal and abundant, as is thought. In this connection it should be distinctly understood, that while the therapeutic value of opium, after a more discriminating experience, has suffered no abatement in the estimation of the Profession, the totality of prescriptions, nevertheless, is proportionately less than as was twenty years ago. Upon this last basis the excess is 146,000 (less the ten percent.

Take now the population for 1867, 37,000,000, upon which abate 10% in consideration of frontiersmen and immigrants, for Bourbon mountain-dew (not the elixirs with other fastidious luxuries) it is the choice of the pioneer tracks of the ruder civilizations — and of the remainder, reckon ye as constituting the number past the 25th year (for at an earlier age instances of the habit commenced are rare), the final number is 9,250,000 persons among whom this 78,400 pounds is to be distributed for the purposes of stimulation.

Such statistics, fully presented, bear no equivocal interpretation. But there are, besides, independent and collateral evidences here and there cropping out, which evince the fact that the opium mania, far from being restricted within the purlieus of our cities and rural centres, is fast pervading the country populations. Scarcely a village or a hamlet is to be excepted as unrepresented by its two classes of inebriates, the devotees to alcoholics and the more miserable slaves to opium. Turn whichever way, you will come upon the druggists by twos or tens with their lists (provided they do not set face against applicants); and as for the doctors, they could tell ugly tales, but that silence – “expressive silence” it may be – is written on their foreheads.

Dr. Barnes of Ohio has expressed the opinion, that for his section more deaths are traceable to opium as their remote cause than, to the alcoholic crudities so freely in use. Dr. Palmer of Ontario has among his notes of practice the names of above a hundred patients, without counting such as came to his knowledge by simple hearsay, invalids from such enslavement.

Thus addresses the writer, a physician and druggist of a New England city, Dr. S. S.:

“In this town I began business twenty years since. The population, then at 10,000, has increased only inconsiderably, but my sales have advanced from 50 pounds of opium the first year to 300 pounds now; and of laudanum four times upon what was formerly required. About 50 regular purchasers come to my shop, and as many more, perhaps, are divided among the other three apothecaries in the place. Small country dealers also have their quotas of dependents.”

Such is no solitary record.

In the Portland Press, 1868, a correspondent sounds the alarm-note in these words: “Very few of our people are aware how many habitual consumers of opium among us a careful scrutiny would disclose. In the little village of Auburn (of the neighborhood) at least fifty such (as counted up by a resident apothecary) regularly purchase their supplies hereabouts; and the country grocers, too, not a few of them, find occasion for keeping themselves supplied with a stock.”

Corroborative accounts come in from New Jersey and Indiana, from Boston at one extreme and from St. Louis at another, and from the impoverished South as well. In the Mississippi Valley particularly the use of stimuli of every name is fearfully on the increase (Pitcher, Comstock).

Our asylums for inebriates have their representatives also, though the numbers here are no proper index of the real proportions, for but a minimum portion of the patients of this class are disposed to undergo any regular disciplinary treatment whatever. From a report of Binghamton for 1864, it appears that out of 7,245 applicants that year, 520 of them, or 14 percent had been prostrated either by opium alone, or by this and liquor conjoined. Indeed, among the older settlements, it might be difficult to find a section of territory with a radius of five miles only that could not make a show of victims.

Such announcements, no figments of conjecture or barren conclusion, are rather monitory reflexes of pregnant truths. They cannot be wisely overlooked as being mere coincidences; do they not rather hold among themselves the more determinate and permanent relationship of cause and sequence? – a question every way worthy a most scrutinizing elimination.

Leave a comment

Commercial Origins Of The Global Opium Pandemic

(From) “Opium & The Opium Appetite” by Alonzo Calkins, MD published 1870

Chapter II: The Commercial History Of Opium In Europe And The Orient

“Audax lapeti genus Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit.” – Horace.

“Japheth shall dwell in the tents of Shem” – The Patriarch

Among Semitic peoples it originally was where the poppy extract, Opium, found its marts and consumers; and if Egypt was the originator, Persia certainly “cette patrie ete pivot” says Ferishta, is the historic foster-mother. The Moslem, it is reckoned, carried opium to the China-frontier as early as the tenth century or before. Chardin, the traveller, who visited Persia towards the close of the seventeenth century, found the article a familiar acquaintance there, for Schah Abbas had put it under the ban of a decree a hundred years before this. According to this author, the Tartar hordes at the era of the Conquest, 1644, took opium along with them across the Great Wall; yet for more than a century after, the new immigrant made no measurable advance, being restricted to medicinal purposes solely, e.g., in dysentery and melancholia.

The importations into China, from alien sources, had not by 1767 exceeded 200 packages annually. From so small beginnings the trade thus initiated by Portuguese adventurers at Whampoa has now, upon various estimates, Johnston’s with the rest, so expanded as to comprehend an aggregate of populations numbering above 700,000,000 of individuals, in their various distributions over Persia, India, China and Tartary, Malacca and the Sunda Isles, and Turkey and the Levant, even to Mauritania and Egypt; indeed, whithersoever the Crescent has conducted migrations opium has borne company, finding for itself successive lodgments.

The introduction of opium into the Island of Formosa is credited by Choo-Tsun to the Hung Maou or red-haired (the English); another account implicates more directly the Dutch merchants of Batavia.

Hindustan, which furnishes eight-tenths of the total supply for China, might be styled, and without hyperbole, an immense poppy-garden. The importations from India into China were: 1767 – 200 caissons. 1800-1810 – 2,500 piculs (133 lbs/picul), average. 1820 – 4,700 (7,000) piculs; 1830 – 18,700 piculs 1840 – (1838, 48,000) 50,000 piculs; 1850 – (1848-9, 54,000) 55,000 piculs 1860 – 60,000 piculs upon estimate; 1867 – 75,000 piculs (=10,000,000 lbs.)

For the later decennial periods there has been a falling off below the two percent of annual increase that was, a reduction variously ascribable to poverty, increasing celibacy, and impaired fecundity and infanticide, the direct and palpable offshoots of the national vice.

Opium being in China a dutiable article, a large margin must be allowed for the contraband traffic. Some presumptive estimate may be formed of the extent of such traffic from an item of the commercial history of the country for 1839.

About this year had been issued the famous “Edict,” which proscribed and condemned to destruction all the opium then in the ports. Within a twelve month thereafter there passed through Canton 1800 piculs, upon 700 of which only, or 40 percent of the whole, was the duty paid. In view of the fact that there is to be guarded a coastline of twenty-five hundred miles, swarming with a population whose supreme passion is the procurement of opium at all hazards, legitimately or illicitly, an addition of 12 percent to the customs figures would be a safe reckoning.

There is besides a large home production, which Dr. Macgowan, more than twenty years since, estimated as coming up to twenty-five percent on the importations. The cultivation has proceeded for years in the southwest province, Yunnun, and has extended (on the authority of Waterton) to at least six provinces, from one of which alone there annually go out several thousand chests. The accounts for 1869 are, that the manufacture as well as the consumption is increasing at rapid rates, particularly in Mongolia and Mantchuria. The home growth must be very large; indeed, upon a calculation made by G. S, Cooke, then resident in the country, it approximates to the amount imported.

Suppose this domestic supply to have now reached 35 percent only as compared with the foreign, the people of China are now (1867) consuming in a single year 110,620 piculs = 14,750,000 pounds of opium. To such swelling proportions has this “cloud no bigger than a man’s hand” expanded itself, and within the range of just one century!

The tabulated records are confirmed every way by miscellaneous facts. As long ago as 1842, Surgeon G. H. Smith, of Pulo-Penang. estimated that one-tenth of the people of the kingdom were then addicted to the opium pipe, and one-third of that proportion in Malacca. The returns made by Sir John Bowring for Canton and the contiguous districts give a ratio of 26 percent; three local reports, made by native officials, comprise 4,600 smokers out of a total of 13,500 individuals. In Rajpootana (Col. Todd), the use of opium in one form or another is well- nigh universal; and what is true of this district is equally so of Tartary, where the Abbe Hue found the pipe in requisition among all classes and everywhere, their tribunals and solemn assemblies not excepted.

In 1843, when the Rev. Mr. Lowrie was at Amoy, it seemed to him that almost everybody was given to the stimulus; and Johnson, missionary at Fou-Cliow in 1S67, found a state of things well-nigh as bad. As for the hospitals and almshouses of China, they present records to which nothing corresponding as chargeable to alcoholics is yet furnished by similar institutions in our own land. In 1844, at Dr. Little’s House of Correction in Singapore, of the 44 inmates, 4 out of 5 were found to be consumers; a proportion agreeing exactly with the observations of Surgeon Smith.

Compare now, by way of contrast, 1867 with 1840. To the 50.000 pounds of 1840 add 25 percent (for the home culture), making no allowance for clandestine importations where there was little or no inducement to such, the ratio of advance for this 27 years is as 185 : 100, which, compounded with that of population.

In 1840 the East India Company realized out of the opium traffic with China the sum of $4,000,000; in 1850 the receipts reached $15,000,000, a figure which had doubled by 1858. More than ten years back (1854) the Chinese paid this company for opium alone a sum exceeding in valuation the total export of their teas and silks together. Indeed, as Dr. Allen has calculated, the annual surplus profit at the time from this branch of trade alone was adequate to the liquidation, in the course of seven years, of the twenty million debt that had been incurred by the act of colonial emancipation, principal and interest both.

To such proportions has this species of trade tentatively undertaken by a few roving mariners now culminated, fostered as it has been by the indomitable greed of English merchantmen. The humanising tendencies of British civilization, as enforced and supported by British artillery, are very palpably illustrated in a saying current among the people of China, of this sort: “During the opium war the English gave their Chinese acquaintance cannonballs of iron, and after the war, cannonballs of opium; so that our people had the desperate privilege of choice as between being shot to death and poisoned to death.”

“ Revenons a nos moutons – oh nos cheres moutons!” 

Great Britain & The Continent

Paracelsus introduced opium to the notice of Europeans just about two centuries ago. All over Europe the gum bears the highest repute for its therapeutic powers, but as a narcotic stimulant it is little known beyond the limits of the English people and the Parisians. England alone (for Scotland is exempt, and Ireland nearly so) probably consumes more than France and Germany and the Peninsula altogether.

Importations into Great Britain (vide Parliamentary Documents). 1830 – 22,000 pounds; (over re-exportations). 1835- 30,400; 1840 – 41,000; 1850 – 44,000; 1860 — 98,300; 1867 – 125,000. 

Population. 1840 – 27,000,000, 1860 – 29,000,000. 1867 – (1869, 31,000,000) 30,000,000.

1856 Dr. Hawkins of King’s Lynn ascertained upon inquiry that the chief consumption was in Lancashire and other districts, within which are embraced the large manufacturing centres, Sheffield, Manchester, Birmingham, Preston, Nottingham – cities that make up an aggregate population bordering on two millions. The operatives in Lancashire alone (Liverpool excluded) number about two hundred thousand. A chemist in one locality informed Dr. H. he had, in a single year, sold in divided parcels to the amount of two hundred pounds of the drug. Another dealer had thus disposed of a hundred and forty pounds, with the extras of Laudanum and Godfrey’s Cordial, to the extent of ten gallons per week. Here was opium enough, sold at one shop alone, adequate to the supplying of fifteen hundred persons with one drachm of laudanum every day of the year. In the town of Preston, 1843, as was ascertained, sixteen hundred families were regular purchasers of Godfrey, making a ratio of twelve and a half upon the entire population.

Editor’s Note: Godfrey’s Cordial (also called Mother’s Friend) was among the most widely used patent medicine given to infants and children in England and the United States during the latter years of the 18th and early part of the 19th centuries. It was almost always given without a physician’s advice, and was used for a wide variety of symptoms ranging from run-of-the mill fretfulness and colic, to the severest forms of dehydration caused by explosive, bloody diarrhea. Despite the innocuous name, it was a dangerous preparation for infants because of its heavy opium content; Godfrey’s Cordial contained one grain of opium in each two ounces.

Some years since, Dr. A. S. Taylor, an eminent toxicologist, presented, by appointment, to a Committee of Parliament, a report of observations and inquiries made upon a survey of Marshland and the contiguous districts. A druggist whom he met in one parish, assured him he had made sales in small packages during the year previous to the amount of a thousand pounds; a quantity not equal to the demand by a half. This informant declared further, that there was not a village in all that region round but could show at least one shop and its counter loaded with the little laudanum vials, even to the hundreds, for the accommodation of customers retiring from the workshops on Saturday nights. Thus has an aggressive trade with the foreigner recoiled to plague the aggressor in his own homesteads.

Leave a comment

The Opium Poppy & The Ancient World

(from) “Opium & The Opium Appetite”, published in 1870 by Alonzo Calkins, MD

Editors note: This is Dr. Calkins’ short introductory chapter with some interesting classical references to the Opium Poppy and its widespread medical and popular use in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece and Rome.

Off We Go, In Search Of The Legendary Poppy

Chapter I: The Poppy – Its History, Mythic And Traditional

“Pro magna, teste vetustas Creditur.”- Ovid.

“Pauvres humains, qui bonheur attendez, Levez vos coeurs et nos dictes entendez.” – Rabelais

In the ancient mythologies; Greek and Roman, the early existence and use of the Poppy have abundant attestation. Cybele, mother of the gods, is represented on the old monuments as wearing a wreath of poppies, a symbol of fecundity (Jacques).

The Romans accounted the plant a gift of Demeter or Ceres, the goddess of corn, and she is described as bearing a sceptre in one hand, and in the other the symbolic capsule.

Ovid introduces Night advancing with the significant emblem in her coronet: “Interea placidam redimita papavera frontem Nox venit, et secum somnia nigra trahit.”

Somnus also was often painted as reposing upon a bed of snowy poppies. Silius Italicus speaks of him as wandering about by night, scattering from his loaded horn the medicated herb as he passes along: “Curvoque volucris Per tenebras portat medicata papavera cornu.”

Virgil in the Georgics instances the injunction to make an offering of the poppy to the infernal deities for the repose of the manes of Orpheus: “Inferias Orphei Lethaea papavera mittes.”

Catullus adverts to the “Lethaea papavera” and Tibullus to the “medicata papavera.”

Homer, earlier than any of the rest, who dates about 900 b.c., names the poppy among the familiar embellishments of the garden. The poets, careful observers of natural phenomena and faithful chroniclers of antique lore as they ever are, have thus assigned to the poppy a prehistoric existence as also a foremost preeminence. Expede Herculem – allusions thus distinctive and positive must have an origination outside of the mere unsubstantial creations of the poet’s brain.

Diodorus relates that the women of Thebes were acquainted with an herb having properties analogous to those of the poppy certainly, though he does not specify the name. Pliny, while he does not include the poppy in his enumeration of the indigenous products on the Nile border, plainly well understood its virtues, as is evident from the following passage: “Succus papaveris densatur, cui non vis soporifera modo inest, verum si copiosior hauriatur, mortifera per somnos.”

The poppy was evidently known to the Romans at least five centuries before the Christian era, being spoken of by Livy as conspicuous in the gardens of Tarquinius Superbus. Hippocrates, 460 b.c., was acquainted with the same, and among all the physicians and herbalists of his period, the plant ever holds a prominent place. The famous Mithridaticum, which consisted of thirty-six ingredients, and upon which, as a basis, Andromachus, physician to Nero, compounded his Theriaca, contained poppy-extract in large proportion. Here was the Philonium also, an opiated electuary (as commonly supposed, combining hyoscyamus), a compound experimentally known to Plato, who, it appears, was wont to innovate upon his vegetarian habitudes with something more potent than beans and cress. This doughty champion in the van of the philosophers thus turns up in a novel association, as a pioneer to the long line of opium eaters.

Dioscorides, the Linnaeus by anticipation of his day, and Galen, the erudite physician of a period somewhat later, both accord to the poppy a precedent rank.

To Egypt, mother of the ancient civilization and cradle of art, medical writers have from earliest times been prone to point, as having been also the original herbarium of the botanic world. All refer with various speculations to the Nepenthes of the Odyssey as described in Lib. iv. 220. Thirty centuries since it was, as we measure the veiled past, when on the occasion of a nuptial banquet in the halls of Menelaus, at which Telemachus was present as a guest of honor, Helen, the famed in Trojan story, is related to have commingled for the use of her company a cordial of some sort: “A mirth-inspiring bowl, To clear the clouded front of wrinkled care, And dry the tearful sluices of despair” as it would do through twenty-four hours continuously.

The essential element, or what imparted to this liquor its intoxicant virtue proper, has been generally thought to have been a poppy-essence. Such is the view maintained by the learned Sprengel; and Van Swieten indicates his belief in the following passage: “Papaver, instar Helena: Nepenthes, oblivionem omnium malorum inducit.” That the prevalent opinion in the time of Claudian was in accordance with this, is plain from the following significant passage, indicative both of the origin of the plant which affords our opium, and of the primitive mode of preparation. The lines belong to an epithalamium dedicated to Palladius: “Nuiacm pingue desuuat vulnere cortex.”

The Nepenthes, a complex compound, and what Pliny thus adverts to as the “Nobile Nepenthes oblivionem tristitis afferens,” not unlikely, as indeed Dioscoridcs suspected, combined the Cannabis besides.

At the beginning of the present century and later, says Lane, among the common people of Egypt the Cannabis in one or another form, as compared with opium, was in more familiar use; and to this day a wine is made corresponding in character to the description by Dioscorides, and which, mingled with their booza or barley-wine, bears the name of bandji.

In Constantine, Algeria, the fashion at the soirees is to smoke the herb, and also to commingle the wine in their coffee; and thereupon ensues singing and dancing with hilarious extravagance in every way. Galen adverts to a virous liquor made from the seeds of the hemp, a beverage anciently used for its exhilarating inspirations. This much is rendered certain, the Cannabis was a familiar stimulant in the period of the Caliphate.

Very noticeable is the fact that the Hebrew Scriptures, amid references to balsamics and other aromatics, with their confections, make no distinctive allusion to the poppy, nor indeed to any narcotic extract, unless myrrh be so accounted. For such omission there is to be found a measurable explanation, perhaps, in the consideration that the Hebrew family, that “peculiar people” though having sojourned in the land of Egypt, their “house of bondage” for four hundred years, were kept nevertheless by the ruling power carefully segregated from the indigenous race, and under the governance of rigid taskmasters who made their lives “bitter with hard bondage.” The “strong drink” repeatedly spoken of in Leviticus and the prophetic writings was inebriating rather than soporific (Prov. XX-I, and Isa. V.- 11); though myrrhated and absinthiated liquors were employed of old for their recognized stupefactive powers. Vide chap. xxii.


Leave a comment

Posting A Remarkable Opium Book – From 1870

Oh No! Granny Found Her Pipe Again!

Something is missing from the media’s breathless coverage of the Opioid crises. Is it just my limited perspective, or are the faces and lives of the people suffering from addiction missing from what we are being shown and told?

I see lots of talking heads – experts, politicians, police, doctors, scientists, moralists and so on discussing the “Crisis” and what to do about it, but only rarely do I see any attention paid to acknowledging the reality of human beings who are trapped in hopelessness, misery and despair.

Well, sometimes I do see individuals who “used to be” addicted, being interviewed with the purpose of promoting the idea that addiction can be overcome using the latest solution touted on Oprah, and once in a while I see a quick shot, with the face blurred out, of a dead addict. Holy shit – would you look at that!

That scary approach ought to keep the kids safe – at least the good little boys and girls. Use lurid stories and images for deterrence, and then go to barbaric punishment and wacky therapies when deterrence fails, which it always does. (That’s where private prisons come in. What a goldmine!)

For these and other reasons I was first fascinated, then thrilled to discover a book by Dr. Alonzo Calkins, MD, published in 1870 in Philadelphia and New York. The full title of Dr. Calkins’ book is: “Opium And The Opium Appetite: With Notices Of Alcoholic Beverages, Cannabis Indica, Tobacco And Coca, Coffee And Tea, And Their Hygeienic Aspects and Pathologies Related.”

Whew – those long titles were certainly popular! As you can see I have taken the liberty of shortening it a bit. I’ve republished a slightly edited version as “Opium & The Opium Appetite”.

Dr. Calkins writes with the wordiness, flourishes, classical references, occasional racial stereotyping, and moralizing of his time and place, which may make rough going at first for those unaccustomed to reading books from 150 years ago. However, if you are interested in understanding the true nature of today’s “Opioid Crisis”, many aspects of which you will almost never hear discussed, and also in exploring all of the solutions that were tried and found lacking in the centuries leading up to 1870, and that are reflected 100% in the “solutions” being proposed in 2018, then I commend this book to your attention.

Even more important than gaining a familiarity with the long history of failures of institutions and governments to deal effectively with Opioid addiction, and being able to confirm why almost all of the proposals being made today are also doomed to failure, in the pages of Dr. Calkins’ book you will discover real solutions that worked for real people 150 years ago. That is the true value of spending some of your precious time and attention reading what Dr. Calkins has to say.

As a blogger it is my job to make information easy for you to access, so I am not simply going to tell you to go to Amazon where I have re-published Dr. Calkins’ book, edited for clarity and given it a hyperlinked Table of Contents for browsing convenience – although you are welcome to do so.

However, if you prefer to browse the book in small bytes I am going to devote the next month or two to publishing Dr. Calkins’ book chapter by chapter here on Believe me, that is a much easier way to read it than to settle down with  250+ pages of incredibly densely-packed information – although the entire book is a fascinating and rewarding read 

Nevertheless, after all the pain is described, and all the failures documented, and all the ignorant, venal, self-serving experts and authorities quoted, this book is about hope, and redemption, and the ultimate strength of the human spirit. Read this book and you will learn that there are real solutions to the “Opioid Crisis” of 2018, and these solutions will work today just as well as they worked centuries ago – but only if the false solutions are rejected, and the inborn human will to survive is nurtured and supported, and only if people finally learn to care what happens to other human beings. And good luck with that.

Here is a list of all 28 chapters. I will post Chapter One tomorrow, January 17, 2018 and will post each successive chapter every few days.

Chapter I: The Poppy – Its History, Mythic & Traditional

Chapter II: The Commercial History Of Opium In Europe And The Orient

Chapter III: The Opium Record For The United States

Chapter IV: The Pharmacology Of Opium

Chapter V: Methodical Forms Of Opium Stimulation

Chapter VI: The Physiological Action Of Opium

Chapter VII: The Pathological Action Of Opium

Chapter VIII: The Psychological Action Of Opium

Chapter IX: Opium Literature In The Reflex View

Chapter X: Longevity & Personal Deterioration

Chapter XI: Immature Development & Family Degeneracy

Chapter XII: Idiosyncrasies

Chapter XIII: Utilities & Anomalies Of Opium

Chapter XIV: Causes & Occasions

Chapter XV: Class, Age, & Sex

Chapter XVI: The Posology Of Opium

Chapter XVII: Is The Opium-Appetite Qualifiedly Vincible?

Chapter XVIII: Voluntary Reforms & Involuntary Failures

Chapter XIX: Specific Therapies

Chapter XX: General Therapeutics & Moral Hygiene

Chapter XXI: Institutional Discipline

Chapter XXII: Narcotic Stimuli: The Varieties Of Alcohol

Chapter XXIII: Opium Contrasted With Alcoholic Beverages

Chapter XXIV: The Alternatives:  The Vine Or The Poppy – Which?

Chapter XXV: Opium & Cannabis Indica Contrasted

Chapter XXVI: Tobacco, And Coca (Cuzcan Tobacco), Contrasted With Opium

Chapter XXVII: Coffee & Tea In Contrast With Opium

Chapter XXVIII: Legislation Against Stimuli


Leave a comment

OK Genius -Show Us You Really Can Make A Better Deal

Wow – Pure Genius At Work!

The Trumpmeister certainly seems obsessed by the idea of “The Wall”. But his imagination is, to say the least, a bit limited and so is the imagination of all the parasites who want to build it for him. In a recent competition, various companies were paid millions to come up with designs for “The Wall”, and predictably they were all variations on the “Barrier” theme. As if that concept has ever worked. But as noted – no imagination here, just dumb greed.


Minefield, Guard Tower, Electric Fence – Still Didn’t Stop People

The East Germans tried it. Hundreds of miles of electrified, barbed-wire fences with vast stretches of mined open ground on either side and guard towers manned 24/7 by killers with heavy weapons. Tens of thousands of men, women and children were blown up by the mines, shot dead by the guards, or torn apart by the dogs before they even got to the fence. Still, many made it across – to “Freedom” in the West. As a little boy I lived a few kilometers from that Wall, and sometimes in the night I would hear a “crump” in the distance, and I knew that someone trying to escape had just died stepping on a mine. But they kept coming, and over time things changed, and now the wall is gone.

French Engineering At Its Best

The French tried it. They built an impregnable “Maginot Line” of linked pillboxes, artillery, machine guns, minefields and searchlights to keep the Germans from invading. It stretched from the sea in the East to the impenetrable Ardennes Forest in the West. Mon Dieu! One foggy morning several Panzer divisions simply plowed through the “impenetrable forest”, flanked the Maginot Line, and rolled on into Paris. Vive la France!


That’ll Stop Those Mongol Hoards In Their Tracks!

The Chinese tried it. The “Great Wall of China was built all across their northern frontier to keep out the deadly Mongols, and it worked! No Mongol invasion. They were safe for centuries – but then along came the British in their warships. From the South. No Great Wall. No problem for the Brits. China fell, and the Brits used to go on holidays to see the wall and snicker.

So, the evidence says that barriers along borders don’t work. They will be defeated by those they are intended to keep out, or by others who turn out to be a greater danger than those the wall was built to defeat.

I do, however, have a suggestion for Trump and all the fools who think that a 2000 mile long wall will keep out Mexicans, Guatemalans, Hondurans, Salvadorans, Columbians and – oh yes – drug cartels and terrorists.

Some of the wall has already been built, so forget that part for the moment. Let’s look at the remaining 700 or so miles. The low-ball estimate for building those 700 miles is $16,000,000,000 ($16 Billion) and the realistic estimate is $32,000,000,000 ($32 Billion). At the top end that comes to $45,714,286 per mile and at the bottom end that comes to $22,857,143 per mile. So let’s say it would wind up costing somewhere in the middle – say, $25,000,000,000 ($25 Billion) for 700 miles, or @ $35 Million per mile.

1500 SF 3/2 modular for @$250,000 -can be helicoptered to site

Now imagine that you build 1 completely self-sufficient village every mile, with 50 houses in each village. Let’s figure $300,000 per house, or $15 Million per village. For that $300,000 you build a very nice modular house – not some foul FEMA trailer, but a genuinely nice house – that is self-sufficient in terms of solar electricity, water, communications, and plenty of amenities. The water might come from groundwater, or catchments, or even the Rio Grande depending on location. All power would be provided by solar. Communications would be through satellite with ground station backup where needed. My guess is that since 35,000 homes would be needed that at $300,000 per-home the amenities that the modular home providers could install would be pretty nice. 

You could also install a nice high-tech food-producing facility in each village whether it was a hydroponic garden, greenhouses, conventional gardens, or whatever solution fits best in each location. These villages would all be extremely remote from the rest of the country, but not from each other – remember, they are only a mile apart. Still, they would have to be 100% self-sufficient, but since each village would have two other villages only a mile away, so in the end residents wouldn’t be all that isolated.

So with a budget of $35 Million per mile, and a cost of $15 million for the houses that are fully off-grid independent energy, water and communications, we have $20 Million per village left over. $1 Million per village would build and equip a pretty nice school with high-speed internet access through satellite links. That leaves $19 Million per village.

“Clinic-In-A-Can” 100% Solar

Then every 20 miles or so you could have a fully-equipped clinic with a med-evac helicopter permanently stationed there for emergencies, with each village in the 20 mile stretch contributing $1 Million of it’s remaining $ 19 million to build and maintain the clinic facility. That leaves each village $18 million. Let’s staff that clinic with doctors who volunteer to spend a year or so in each clinic after completing their residency, using the same model that brings fresh new doctors to remote Native American communities in return for scholarships while they are in medical school. And let’s set aside a couple of million per village to fund all the costs of running the clinic – 20 villages @ $2 million per village and you have an operating reserve of $40 Million per clinic, and a remaining reserve of $16 million per village.

Now, how about work? Easy. Every adult in the village would receive a stipend of $50,000 per year, just for living in the village. Let’s say 2 adults per household @ 50 households = $5 Million per year.  That leaves a reserve of $11 Million per village. The primary mission of each village would be to patrol the ½ mile on either side of the village to make sure that bad guys like drug mules and human traffickers didn’t cross the line. With 50 families per village, putting together a force of deputized men and women to serve wouldn’t be a problem, especially if some of the $11 Million left over from the $35 Million per village budget went to the adults who served on patrol with an extra $50,000 per year. Let’s allocate $2 Million to that function. These deputized villagers could be backed up by a rapid-response force of professionals who could be there in minutes by fast helicopter if someone like the drug cartels tried to penetrate the border by armed force. Now the village has $9 Million in its reserve.

Electric ATV

Each village could also have a marketplace where people sell what they grow or make, just like every remote village in the world, but the difference would be that all the villages could be served with Drones by Amazon from a couple of Amazon warehouse locations along the 700 mile stretch. With an income of between $50,000 per adult per year just for living there, and an extra $50,000 per year if you were on patrol duty, and with zero living expenses, it isn’t hard to imagine that live would be pretty sweet, even if a bit remote. But don’t forget – two other villages with hundreds of people living there would always be within 15 minutes or so walking distance. And I imagine that some pretty nice all-electric ATV’s would show up in each village pretty quickly.

And let’s not forget – after all this has been accomplished, there is still a kitty of about $9 Million per village for things like maintenance.

Now the big question – who would volunteer to move to these villages? You are going to have 700 villages with 50 homes each, or 35,000 homes that will need families to live there at no cost, with all the amenities, and a household income of $50 – $100,000 per adult. And all they have to do besides enjoy life a long way from “civilization” is to monitor the surveillance technology and patrol a half-mile stretch of land on either side of their village. Ya think there would be 35,000 takers? I think the waiting list would run into millions of families. 

Oh, and by the way, each village would have to be legally incorporated and have a village council whose statutory authority would include deciding on a case-by-case basis whether anyone intercepted crossing the border was to be turned over for arrest and deportation, simply turned back, or issued a special permit that allowed them to proceed into the US for re-settlement. The legalities would have to be worked out, but that should be do-able, right? Who knows, maybe some of the legitimate immigrants might want to build homes next to the village and become part of the community. The law could make that possible.

Well, I am sure I have missed some details here, but I am presenting this as a plan for a better, more humane and much more productive way of ensuring peace and stability along our border with Mexico than repeating the failed model of trying to build a barrier wall – without even any minefields or homicidal guards in towers.

I mean – is that what does our “Genius” president wants to buy? Really? A Barrier Wall? There has to be a better deal for the Great Deal-Maker to come up with. Let’s think about building a wall of humanity.

Leave a comment

1870 to 2018 – No Change



Nowhere near enough people understand, or care, that today’s “Opioid Crisis” is nothing new. There may be a few new twists – after all, Pig Pharma has been busy busy in the last 150 – 200 years, constantly tweaking their game to extract more profits from the misery they create. However, the reality is that nothing significant has changed. Here are just a few of the many comparisons that can be made.

  • In 1870 most people addicted to Opium-based “medicines” were originally hooked by medical “professionals” – doctors and pharmacists. In 2018 the same is true.

  • In 1870 it was the “patent medicine” industry that addicted most people with tonics and elixirs. In 2018 it is the “pharmaceutical industry” that addicts most people with pain medicine and psycho-drugs.

  • Most of today’s “pharmaceutical” giants started in the 1800’s as “patent medicine” companies. They have thrived for centuries on blood money, and in 2018 they are immensely rich and virtually untouchable.

  • In 1870 most people who became addicted began using opium-based medicines to deal with some form of painful disease, injury, or emotional state. In 2018 the same is true.

  • In 1870 “respectable” society treated Opium addicts as throwaways and criminals, and non-addicts firmly believed that addiction was due to lack of character. This prejudice was drilled into consciousness through endless propaganda coming from society’s “authorities”. The same is true in 2018.

  • In 1870 there were millions of addicted children, whose mothers were given Opium and Morphine-laced “tonics” by doctors to control behaviors like crying and colic that upset Moms. In 2018 millions of children are saturated with mind & spirit-numbing medications prescribed by doctors to control behaviors like ADHD that upset Moms.

  • In 1870 the “better classes” were able to hide their addiction, and to get confidential treatment when things got too bad. It was everybody else who crashed and burned publicly, allowing the elite to point, smirk and feel smug about their superiority. Nothing has changed in 2018.

  • In 1870 there were only two basic approaches to treating addiction. First, total, instant cessation and toughing out the withdrawal symptoms. Special asylums were built to incarcerate addicts while they went through the agony of withdrawal. The second approach was gradual withdrawal, progressively substituting something supposed to be less addictive. This was a less painful approach, but cost a lot more and took a lot longer. Instant withdrawal didn’t work, and progressive withdrawal only worked occasionally, and things haven’t changed in 2018.

  • In 1870 Heroin was used to treat Morphine addiction. In 2018 Methadone is used to treat Heroin addiction. Pig Pharma continues to prosper.

  • In 1870, very few addicted people were actually addicted to pure opium. Instead, they were addicted to the cheapest dregs of opium production, combined with boosters like Arsenic, Strychnine, Mercury, Lead, Cocaine, Morphine, Belladonna and Datura. In 2018 no Opioid addict is addicted to pure natural opium, but to synthetic substances that mimic Opium boosted with other highly addictive chemicals like Fentanyl.

  • In 1870 Draconian prohibition laws featuring the death penalty made Opium a very expensive and profitable commodity worldwide, creating global criminal syndicates shielded by corrupt police forces and politicians. In 2018 some countries still murder addicts outright, while others just lock them away for life. The criminal syndicates and corrupt police and politicians are reincarnations of the same evil souls that plagued 1870.

  • In 1870 there were hundreds of treatment programs pushed by social entrepreneurs and religious moralists promising to cure addiction. None worked, and relapse was nearly universal. Same in 2018.

  • In 1870 the true causes of addiction were well known. They were invariably some combination of pain, misery, poverty, hopelessness, isolation, loneliness, ignorance, and exploitation. In 2018 the true causes of addiction are the same.

Leave a comment

Have a Revolutionary New Year!

The Little People Are So Sad

If we’re going to get all panicked about Opioid deaths (not that we shouldn’t care about the human misery behind the numbers), then there are at least a few other causes of death for profit that we ought to be taking a closer look at.

Maybe we should be trying to find ways to keep the predator industries behind these deaths, hiding safe and secure in their glass towers and zealously protected by our government, from making quite so much money off of the slaughter of Americans.

2016 – deaths from Cannabis (source: DEA) = 0

2016 – deaths from all Opioids (prescription & street) = @ 59,000 people

2016 – deaths from prescription Opioids alone = @ 33,000 people

2016 – deaths from lung cancer (we all know why) = @ 158,000 people

2016 – total deaths from cigarettes (cancers, heart disease, etc.) = 340,000 people

2015 – deaths from Hospital-acquired infections = @ 99,000 people

2015 – deaths from obesity-related causes (including industrial food) = @ 300,000 people

2016 – deaths from gunshot, all causes – @ 33,000 people

2015 – deaths from alcohol, disease only (non-traffic) = 88,000 people

As I glance through these causes of death, what strikes me is that every one of them involves big American corporations or powerful American institutions making lots of money. And laughing at us. We know they are. And we know why. They figure they are invulnerable.

Are they?