panaceachronicles

Pure, Natural Coca Leaf – A Healing Gift Of The Divine Plant


Leave a comment

Opium Literature In The Reflex View

This chapter is not really a review of Opium literature but, rather, a bit of a diatribe against Thomas De Quincey, whose “Confessions Of An English Opium Eater” has entertained generations as one of the few books that many readers believe is a true confessional, detailing both the virtues and the dangers of excessive indulgence in Opium. However, according to Calkins, De Quincey was a actually a literary fraud, and his arguments to that effect are what make this chapter interesting.

Also, toward the end, he mentions a US Congressman (John Randolph of Roanoke, Virginia) who was apparently, in his day, rather well-known as an Opium addict and a brilliant orator – when he was not asleep in the House Chamber. A bit of research into the life of this politician, who was evidently rather entertaining and talented, might reveal a more interesting character than the drunks, child molesters, religious fanatics, embezzlers, and Satanic monsters that the American public, in its questionable wisdom, seems to continue to elect.

(From) “Opium And The Opium Appetite

by Alonzo Calkins, MD (1970)

Chapter IX: Opium Literature In The Reflex View

“Tibi cum fauces urit sitis, aurea quseris Pocula? Num esuriens fastidis omnia prater Pavonem rhombumque?” — Horace.

“True I talk of dreams,

Which are the children of an idle brain,

Begot of nothing but vain fantasy.” – Romeo and Juliet.

The intellectual atmosphere engendered by the fumes of opium is but a confused commixture of sunshine and cloud, which, when intervening between the eye that surveys and the object contemplated, presents a picture as exaggerated or distorted in its proportions as it is confused and grotesque in its colorings. The transformation is as great as we observe in Abou Hassan, son of the Bagdad merchant, in his metamorphosis as Caliph, now giving audience from the throne to arrogant emirs and obsequious viziers, or again feasting in palatial gardens, with Sunshine, and Coral-Lips, and Heart’s-Delight, the caterers to his pleasures and his banquet companions.

Transport the man to a newly created visionary sphere, as author he must, in the nature of things, reappear in his novel thought creations and musings, a veritable evolution of his proper self. The contrary view would involve that Persian paradox, soul dualism; the idea of the soul alternately swayed between Ormuzd the good principle, and Ahriman the bad.

Prof. N. Porter has enunciated the true doctrine in this compact sentence: “For the individual to undertake to hide himself behind the mask, is simply impossible; the features of the original will certainly shine through, and invariably.”

Even of dramatic representation, in which actor and the character personated are for the occasion blended, the same parallelism holds. No more could Kemble or Macready have exhibited the same Hamlet, than they could have reproduced the Garrick in his proper identity.

So of the life, which is but the outgrowth proper of the spiritus intus, thought and resolve energized into action. We reverence the “Great Teacher,” our ideal exemplar “in all manner of conversation and godliness,” for the “sufficient reason” (as Leibnitz would have had it), that in Him the exemplifications of spiritual culture and growth were so harmoniously congruent with his didactic utterances.

When the Great Captain made appeal to his army, as it was deploying within the shadows of the Pyramids, in the memorable words “ Du haut de ces pyramides quarante siecles vous contemplent” (“From the summits of yonder pinnacles there are looking down this day upon your exploits the generations of forty centuries,” was there a soldier in those ranks but for the moment imagined himself as marshalled into the very presence of those generations? All disclaimers to the contrary notwithstanding, is there a superficial reader only, who, following the “childe” in his wanderings, continues all the while uncognizant of the fact, that he has in company the veritable original, the aberrant youth while a dweller in Albion’s Isle, “Who neer in Virtue’s ways did take delight?

Goldsmith in the “Traveller” is Goldsmith persona propria; on every page of the “Table Talk” the conversational poet has unwittingly made some etching of the melancholic enthusiast: “ ‘Tis Nature pictured too severely true.”

Let the man deliberately yield himself up to the mastery of a depraved appetite, the soul must perforce become contaminated from the festering virus, the moral sense will be perverted, the finer sensibilities and nobler aspirations will decline and die out, and life’s aim become erratic and purposeless, until existence itself seems shrunken to the diminutive proportions of a troglodyte semi-creation. Here and there indeed fancy may kindle into an ephemeral glow and genius sparkle once more in some fitful resuscitation; but in the stead of the joyous sunbeam gloriously shining around in its serene effulgence, there will have succeeded a vapory ignis-fatuus with its blinky flashiness, a phosphorescent fire glimmering athwart the murky horizon “That leads to bewilder and dazzles to blind.”

Out of deference to that impersonal juridicist and literary arbiter elegantiarum, “Common Fame,” which in its exultant admiration would so persistently hold up and keep before the public view as model-casts of intellectual acumen and aesthetic taste the Aristarchus and the Trismegistus of their tribe, De Quincey and Coleridge, they are here reintroduced in their proper presentable characters. So long as a jejune subtility of thought shall command distinction by force of style-ornamentation, or tenuity of fabric shall offer in compensation an “endless thread of verbosity,” so long shall these magnates in transcendental criticism continue to be recognized as star-actors on the lists of the dramatis personce. The true key to their speculations must be searched for in their biographies.

De Quincey at Oxford

De Quincey made his first essay upon opium during his student life at Oxford. Some gastric derangement, sheltered under that broad-shouldered patronymic, dyspepsia, offered a plausible excuse; but back of this a more cogent incitement was at work, the longing felt for some sort of artificial excitement for occasions, and particularly in anticipation of the Saturday-evening opera.

His maximum for the day, 8000 drops, was attained by the eighth year – a nominal and putative rather than a precisely definite measure, as appears in a declaration recently made by his quondam friend Sinclair, who had accompanied De Quincey time and again to the apothecary’s in Edinburgh where stands Scott’s monument, to see him toss off a wine glass of laudanum and with a sang-froid as if the draught had been mere water.

The autobiographer and essayist, author of “Suspiria de Profundis” (ex Profundis is meant), as also of the rest, was wont to herald every fresh volume of his “farrago libellorum” with the pretentious announcement, “By Thomas De Quincey, Author of Confessions of an English Opium Eater.” On every successive title page, along with the conscious confession to an overshadowing infirmity, is thus paraded a palpable yearning after a notoriety that should preoccupy the public curiosity, rather than a precatory appeal, in arrest of judgment, to a lenient public sympathy. “Is this a guide to them that sit in darkness, an instructor of the foolish?” He that “ gropeth at noonday as in the night” renders but a dubious protection against the moral titubations of inexperienced youth, who, if walking blindly, appear peradventure less blind than their leader. Quousque tandem?

“Shall gentle Coleridge pass unnoticed here,

To turgid ode and humid stanza dear?”

Coleridge, a Cambridge student in 1796, having been confined for some weeks (bed-ridden as his own account was), for oedema of the knees, with rigidity of the same, found his solace in laudanum. The suggestion had been made by a fellow Cantab. The first dose, 20 drops (a bold and ominous setting out truly), produced an effect so satisfactory as to encourage the repeated use. There appears, however, to have been a letting up not long after, for in 1800 he thus writes to a friend: “I have my health now, restored perfectly.” Only four years from this he is well-nigh broken down, having succumbed to his habit beyond retracing, for now he had reached his high-water line, going at the rate of a pint for 30 days. On some of these days he used up, as was known, a whole pint. Like the elixir-vitae man, Paracelsus, his prototype in this matter, whichever way he went or wherever he tarried, the laudanum vial was his regular compagnon de poche.

To have an appreciative view of this dreamy sentimentalist in his alternations of indulgence and penitential regrets, we have simply to refer to the gleanings and garnerings as served up by his “next friend” and most estimable confidant, Joseph Cottle, Esq. “Oh, Joseph Cottle! – (Phoebus, what a name to fill the speaking-trump of future fame!”) – and we have our subject presented in his pure undress, to be microscopically anatomized with a pertinacity truly Boswellian. Here emerges into view the transcendentalist ex integro, Sinon-like, “Fidens animi et in utrumque paratus,” ready with palliatory excuses for stealthily indulging an unbridled appetite while affecting the merit of a severe self-abnegation; one day discoursing from the pulpit upon celestial themes, the next, by an easy transition, junketing upon a biscuit and a bottle of brandy, or hobnobbing with a chum over a brace of port.

One time, after the big doses had become established, under the consciousness of a spirit disquieted within, he delivers himself in a jeremiad after this sort; “I have learned what sin is; sin, that is to say, against an infinitely great and imperishable object, the soul of man!” Lo. This soi-disant ethicist and quixotic epicurean, pseudo-penitent and rampant voluptuary combined, who could talk of opium as “an accursed thing entailing evils worse than death,” yet, as if resolved on straining physical endurance to its extreme tension, seemed bent on making a ubiquitous acquaintance with narcotics and stimuli of every name.

Taking no warnings from his experiences with “a single poison, baleful to him as that was, he must needs have a trial of bhang, hyoscyamus, and nitrous-oxide withal. That a man thus “everything by turns and nothing long,” who in his everyday life was as “unstable as water,” that one who, when unable so much as to rule his own spirit, should arrogate the office of spiritual director to youth in “Essays towards the Formation of Fixed Principles in Politics, Morals, and Religion,” themes than which none more profound can engage the contemplative mind, and all under the pretentious title of “Friend”, verily all this conveys to the chance reader the apprehended suspicion, that philosophy may by possibility be travestied in sonorous periods of the mock-burlesque.

As representative exponents of contrarieties in the realm of poesy, Byron and Coleridge may be set in advantageous juxtaposition. “Genevan ichor, or some such other spiritual liquor,” (so saith Leigh Hunt) fired the muse of the one, opium befogged the intellect of the other. Byron’s pictures glisten like Alcyone and her sister Pleiads in the starry realms; Coleridge shades off into a chiaroscuro nebulosity. For verisimilitude of description, picturesque limning and glowing pathos of sentiment, where may we find a recreated scene that shall bear comparison with the “Trinidada and the Shipwreck?” The fond admirers of the Bristol bard need not be chary of their proffered homage – latreia or douleia, whichever it be – to their quondam idol, from apprehension of incurring penance for any supposed violation of the Decalogue, seeing that the “Mariner,” as imaged in the “Rime,” knoweth not its analogue in the “likeness of anything that is in the heaven above, or in the earth beneath, or in the water under the earth.”

As the Edinburgh hath it, “The shadow of something is resolved into the substance of nothing.”

Any attempt to follow along the devious track by which the outre fancies of Coleridge would conduct us, were as bewildering as a chase after the giant shadows that loom up from out the mists of the Hartz. Not in the gaslight illuminations of the camera shall we see symmetrical combinations of form and harmonious blendings of tints as produced in the kaleidoscope. Strip Coleridge and De Quincey together of their tinselly word drapery, enucleate the seed from its pericarp, and apply your magnifier to the residue. Suppose the Suspiria, the Essays, the Confessions, with all their ostentatious train, were dislodged from the alcoves of our libraries, wherein would metaphysics or ethics, political science or ceconomics, be shorn of any real strength?

The autobiographer, Mr. B., observes that for a term of three years after he had come under the habitual use of morphine, he was as comfortable in his general health and as vigorous for brain-work as he had ever been. He, for all, while claiming for opium eaters a certain “method in their madness,” makes the significant admission that their speculations are as vagarious as their eccentricities are peculiar. This martyr-votary (for such he had become through a third and final relapse into a bondage dating thirty years back), so versatile in mental adaptiveness, “grammaticus, rhetor, geometres” preacher, lawyer, and editor, by a sort of e-pluribus-unum combination, seemed to present a tangible realization of the poet’s conception, “Sometimes he, like Cerberus, would seem Three gentlemen at once.”

As appertaining to the history of this species of literature three names renowned in oratory, and representative of three nationalities respectively, claim distinctive notice here.

Lamartine, a Cato redivivus in his curule chair before the presence of the Assemblee Nationale, having survived his proper self, sunk in a dotage into which gourmanderie with opium finally conspiring had hopelessly cast him, has at last passed from our sight forever. Painfully verified in him was a remark of De Touqueville – “The opium eater has ceased to live ere he has ceased to exist.”

Robert Hall, driven to opium as a resource against nervous derangement and general physical prostration, should, in view of his reluctant surrendry to one evil as against a greater, be accounted an exceptional case rather. Inherited constitutional susceptibilities had as early as his sixth year determined in an intense spinal pain; a symptom aggravated undoubtedly by a habit in his boyhood of sitting with his book and perhaps for hours together in the shade of some tree. In 1826 or by twenty years from the first, he was taking 1000 drops of laudanum daily; but this quantity he appears not to have exceeded. His sufferings, at no time less than severe, were some days excruciating. During all this trying period he had not passed so much as a single night in bed, and sometimes he went sleepless the night through. Upon him opium appears to have operated less as a physical excitant than as a neutralizer of pain. The moral sense does not seem to have swayed out of its proper equilibrium here through any disturbing attractions generated by a temulent imagination. The soul within, still self-poised and serene, could say to itself, “Retire; the world shut out, thy thoughts call home; Imagination’s airy wing repress that incarnation of irony and lord of ridicule – that “Fiery soul, which working out its way, Fretted the pigmy body to decay,” was from early youth an invalid with a severe spinal malady of some sort, out of which grew an irritability that cleaved to him his lifetime (Garland). It were no extravagance of charity to assume that the capricious exacerbations of temper and the habitual waywardness of demeanor that so obtrusively marked the man, were in large measure ascribable to the all-controlling habit as much as to the inherited physique.

In intellectual fire, sarcastic invective, and withering repartee, Randolph loomed up before his peers of the American Congress,

“Like to some meteor streaming to the wind,

With gems and golden lustre rich emblazed.”

The halos that in fancy played around those tremulous lips, as words seraphic in tones mellifluous swelled upon enraptured ears, “The applause of listening senates to command,” faded with the occasions that had evoked them, fleeting away like “the troubled sea that cannot rest”

Fit inscription for the tombstone of the poet-orator were the line:

“Here in the dust the wreck of genius lies.”


Leave a comment

The Psychological Action Of Opium

Sun, water, soil and tender loving care is all they need.

(Editor’s note) This is Chapter 8 of Dr. Calkins’ book, and as you will notice he is getting really wound up about the impact that Opium was having on American society in his day. Less noticeable, throughout the book he acknowledges from time to time that if Opium is consumed in moderation, in its pure, natural form, it has none of the horrendous impact on the mind or body that the poisonous creations of the international Opium cartel had and still have (yes, it existed then as it does now). Pure, natural Opium also must be distinguished from the toxic brews of the hundreds of “patent medicine” quacks that included companies that were the direct ancestors of today’s Merck, Bayer, Robbins, and other Pig Pharma criminals, the very ones behind and profiting from the current “Opioid Crisis” they have created – again. It’s hard to keep track but I believe that this is about the fifth or sixth “Opioid Crisis” to be inflicted on America & the world over the last 200 years by these evil charlatans with the full participation of the international oligarchy and their lapdog governments.

The solution, if there is one, is for people to learn to work together cooperatively to grow our own Cannabis, Coca Leaf and Opium Poppies and not to give in to the siren song that tells us “It’s So Easy” just to buy your drugs rather than grow them yourself. But the fact is that not one of the Pig Pharma drugs that are scourging mankind today are anything but chemical manipulations of what would spring pure and natural from Mother Earth under the care of ethical growers.

(From) Opium And The Opium Appetite

by Alonzo Calkins, MD (1870)

Chapter VIII: The Psychological Action Of Opium

“The dreary void, The leafless desert of the mind, The waste of feelings unemployed.” – Byron.

“C’est une atonie degoutante, une prostration absolue de toutes les faculties et de toutes les Energies de Pame.” — Abbe Hue

The moral aspect presented by the opium eater is that in which the negative qualities rather are what stand out in relief. The willpower being now prostrate though indeed self-consciousness has survived, the mind appears sunk in a somnolent and impassive quiescence. Under this spiritual thralldom all the generous sympathies shrink within themselves and fade, the relish for society and its enjoyments is extinguished, and the abject sufferer courses along “spe pendulus horae” buffeted by wind and wave, without power to shape his course, without resolution to make the effort, drifting towards a lurid and desolate shore, to be thenceforward cut off from the living world as by a Styx nine times intervening.

This phase of moral obtuseness Hue adverts to thus: “The spectacle of the family brought to extreme distress, the cries of wife and children, extorted by the pangs of hunger and the pinchings of cold, fail to revive in the parent so much perhaps as a momentary recognition. Such stolidity under abasement is less an index of callous indifference than an implied conviction of helplessness and a settled gloom too deep for Hope’s cheering ray to pierce:

“For a mortal coldness o’er the soul like a death-damp has stole on;

It cannot feel for others’ woes, it dare not dream its own.”

“The days of the opium eater (as observes the Hon. Mr. Tiffany, of the India service) pass along, divided between sloth and remorse, and when night with its pall shuts in the day, again he falls, palsied and unresisting, into the trail of the sorceress that mocks with her finger as she beckons him on.”

“The pernicious effects that come of an unrestrained and excessive devotion to opium (thus writes Prof. C. A. Lee), be the purpose that of obliterating the sense of the present and actual, or of creating a forced and exaggerated ideal of existence, are scarcely liable in the description to any overdrawing. The opium devotee is at once the most abject of slaves as he is the most hopeless of unfortunates. Happy only in the sphere of dreamy illusions, he rushes along towards that slippery verge where the fanciful merges into the dark real, and then he tumbles irrecoverably. The moral sense has become deranged and diseased even out of proportion to the physical deterioration; all the worst propensities of the man, sedulously concealed so long as the mind continued normal, now work up to the surface, exposed in all the grossness of their deformity, and thenceforward shadows, clouds and darkness brood over and around.”

“There is no darkness like the cloud of mind.

The wilds of enchantment, all vernal and bright

In the days of delusion, by fancy combined,

Abandon the soul like a dream of the night,

And leave but a desert behind.”

Every case of opium eating bears marks of some generic affiliation to other cases, yet each presents peculiar diversities. Here follow two, kindly furnished by Prof. J. Ordronaux, M.D., of New York

Mrs. L., a widow of about 60 years, in temperament sanguino-bilious, who had long been a sufferer from uterine prolapsus, came under observation as an opium eater in 1854, presenting symptoms of a somewhat singular rather than of an aggravated type. The indications of general health were fair, there being no dyspepsia, no anaemia and emaciation. The patient, a small eater, had always a good appetite, which she would frequently satisfy by preference on the coarse greasy food of the kitchen, such as pork and cabbage or fried liver, in preference to the delicacies of the family-table, such as her wealth abundantly sufficed to procure. She was also, and had been, a large consumer of ale, and besides she partook of brandy twice or thrice a day, but in what quantities is not precisely known.

Upon this force-system nutrition was maintained at a good standard and average health was kept up; nor, during an acquaintanceship of seven years’ continuance, did she experience any symptom of severe disease, other than from an occasional diarrhoea with painless watery discharges and some nausea, though accustomed to go abroad in all sorts of weather.

Loth to acknowledge her habit of using the narcotic in any such quantity as could possibly affect the intellect, Mrs. L. admitted, nevertheless, that she did take a dose every night, following, as she said, the prescription of a physician. It was admitted by the domestics that now and then an overdose had been swallowed, but through some mistake purely, as perhaps in the measuring; and such was the explanation of certain strange symptoms occasionally remarked. Usually she began the evening with an ounce of McMunn; but how many repetitions were made does not definitely appear, for she would complain of sleeplessness, and so occupy herself with a book far into the night until drowsiness came.

Once asleep, she presented the symptoms of moderate narcotism. On being awakened in the morning (a thing always difficult and slow), her eyes would open with a glassy stare, somewhat distorted as from strabismus, the heart palpitating and the lungs laboring, so that the face would get bathed in a profuse perspiration, lasting through the hour for dressing. Always aware of her peculiar appearance and expression while as yet en deshabille, she was careful to seclude herself from the family until a cup of black coffee had put her en rapport.

Dr. O. had known the patient to go abroad before the narcotic oppression was entirely dispelled, when she would display so entire a forgetfulness of her surroundings as not even to recognize the place where she was at the time. Again she would insist that she had been to some locality or quarter she had really never seen as yet, professing perhaps that her husband (now dead) had told her this and that about such – all mere impromptu invention. If corrected in any way, she would manifest an utter intolerance of all contradiction, as that she herself ought to know about things, and who indeed should know better? The moral nature too had undergone change. Suspicious of near friends, and misconstruing the plainest acts, she would affirm or deny anything and everything, but believe nothing. Declarations the most inconsistent, falsehoods the most palpable, she would one day asseverate to dispute them the next. The thoughts in the paroxysmal state were but disjecta membra, disjointed figments of a perverted imagination, conceived without forethought, and as capriciously dismissed again.

In truth, memory, conscience, and judgment appeared quiescent, as if in a sleep, except when under the reviving influence of those extra restoratives, coffee and brandy, with snuff for a co-adjutor of which she had become an inordinate consumer.

Throughout the period the various emunctories appear to have been active, though somewhat abnormally, as was evident in a certain factor attaching to the pulmonary exhalations and the cutaneous secretions. The demise was in 1866.

Dr. M., a physician of recognized ability as he became addicted to opium for no ascertained cause, but to what extent did not certainly appear. The very fact of using was itself carefully concealed by the subject, though obvious to gentlemen competent to judge, in view of the narcotic oppression under which he was often seen laboring. If suffering at any time under physical ailments, he would never, upon consulting his professional colleagues, allude for once to the primary cause, but would mask every form of indisposition under that most conveniently accommodative of terms — neuralgia. (Neuralgia has been the scapegoat for a multitude of opium sins.)

The demoralizing effects of the vice were in the present case conspicuous and unmistakable. No sooner did opium enter in than conscientiousness walked out. No longer appreciating the moral value of truth, this man would falsify over and over statements he had deliberately made, exhibiting a perversion of spirit that the most cautious contradiction only aggravated and intensified. One day, having invited a brother (a personal friend too that was) to his office, he there, in the presence of two strangers, proceeded to upbraid him on the ground of having made attempts towards undermining his professional standing, though indeed the incongruity and, in instances, the absurdity of his prescriptions had been the occasion of privately calling in physicians for the protection of his patients against mischance, as also in a manner to shield him from suspicious surmises.

In progress he grew to be so indifferent to his responsibilities and so careless of his duties that friends began to suspect a lurking insanity. Our subject (as is reported of him), in some way or by some means surmounted his habit ultimately, and recovered in a fair degree his former reputation. The condition of mind as here described lasted for about two years.

Among opium eaters has been observed an occasional tendency to some form of mania. For the years 1861-66, there were counted up at the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, 35 men and 36 of the other sex coming under this class, and by the year following the proportion had considerably increased. Dr. Gray, Superintendent of the Utica Asylum for fifteen years, writes, that during his administration, although cases applying have generally been rejected, yet there have been received there of insane people as inmates, who were also confirmed opium eaters, 15 persons, all of whom, with a single exception, were women; and further, that 7 of them recovered of their principal malady (for the opium was stopped of course), 4 made no improvement, and 5 died.

This proclivity to insanity which opium fosters may take the suicidal shape, though the determination, but half-formed or only inceptive perhaps, may pass by like the transient cloud. There was a Canton gentleman of mature age known to Dr. Parker, who in a conversation expressed a longing for death as a deliverance from his bondage, but who, “weak and irresolute,” had faltered as was apparent in the critical hour. Death, but faintly sketched and dimly shadowed out, as viewed in the far perspective, expands on reaching the foreground to the exaggerated proportions of an ogre. “Pleasures, hopes, affections gone, the wretch must bear, and yet live on.”

A case with a melancholy termination, published originally by Dr. Barnes, is with his permission here reproduced in briefer form.

The patient, Rev. G. W. Brush, of good natural physique, was also a man of superior mental endowments. Having suffered for a time from an occasional diarrhoeal flux and a scirrhous tongue besides, he by-and-by (as professionally advised) took to opium, going on by littles and for months, until what had been designed for occasional use only had become a sternly fixed necessity. Sixteen years, as the subject reluctantly confessed, had now gone by, and the dose by this had grown to 1/2 grains of morphine per day, and for extras to “20 or more,” an expression which, as was afterwards learned, was to be interpreted “20 or a good deal more.” (Equivocation and prevarication, humiliating characteristics as they are in every association, seem to attach to opium eaters by a sort of indefeasible claim.)

Mr. B., now grown distrustful of his intellectual gifts in view of his degradation, and nervously apprehensive of a waning clerical influence, would repine and mourn over the past, accounting his life thus far a failure, without better promise. An effort once put forth towards a change had been discouraged by a “diarrhoea setting in like a flood” (as was his expression), which bore him seemingly into the very jaws of death. Anxious to make a new trial as proposed, he proceeded by very considerable reductions, though getting weaker and more haggard the days wore on. Spectres and other ugly visions tormented him, and, what is not usual, in the daytime also, distorted faces grinning from beneath the floods of ingulfing waters, eyes as of fiends gleaming and flashing from out of their oceanic caves.

From November, 1866, a year had passed amid chagrin and shame and doubt and remorse, during which period he visited the office to report himself and for advice a hundred times certainly. Occasionally, yet in a cautious and circumlocutory way, he would advert to the dire though possible alternative – self-destruction. Well posted in all the pathology of the habit (as is common with the opium-eating class), he was able to foresee the liabilities and in a manner to anticipate consequences. The dose had got down to two grains, but this was soon varied from to meet the temporarily-recurring diarrhoea; but soon after, under the administration of arsenic and antimony, and without quinine or brandy either, strength and energy appeared to be reviving. Subsequently the patient professed to have reduced himself to a single grain and a quarter, expressing at the time his confidence in the course and a hopeful issue. All this while, however, he was wavering through habitual infirmity of purpose, and on two occasions in particular he had prepared himself with an extra three-grains, once for the lecture, and again for an interview with his counsellor.

The doctor having now been called away for a week, did not meet the invalid as he had expected awaiting his return. A day passed by, and then another.

“The third – with dirges due in sad array,

Slow through the churchway-path they saw him borne.”

Coleridge, whose soul may be said to have been in a perpetual eclipse, appears on one occasion to have premeditated suicide, if indeed (what is doubtful at best) he was ever capable of working himself up to a fixed purpose of any kind.

On a certain day it was when he had gone without his opium for twenty-four hours, as he was sauntering along Bristol docks, having on some trivial pretext excused his Fidus Achates or Man-Friday, he slipped into an apothecary to have his laudanum-bottle filled; but somehow he “let slip the occasion,” as was usual with him whenever the emergency had come.

To the extravagant employment of opium by the Chinese promiscuously as a proximate cause, may undoubtedly be ascribed the extensive prevalence of infanticide. In Fuh-Kien (says the Rev. Mr. Abeel), forty percent of the female infants are sacrificed by their unnatural mothers, and Dr. Cumming found in a neighboring district a laxity of morals even more saddening. Poverty is the specious and ready plea in extenuation of guilt; gambling, and licentiousness its concomitant, reveal the more occult but no less potent cause, the slow-consuming poison there incessantly at work.

The Malay race are somewhat peculiarly affected under the influence, becoming impetuous and irascible, vindictive in their dispositions and reckless of consequences (Parker). In the Javan rendezvous where the dissolute are accustomed to gather for holding their orgies, the authorities have armed sentinels stationed outside the doors for the purpose of repressing any attempted violence, with orders to strike down and even kill any dangerously turbulent person present – so saith Libermann.

This spirit of malicious rancor or fell revenge is sometimes manifested in a very singular fashion among the people of the Celebes, as was witnessed once by Browne in the city of Maccassar. When a man has become for any cause tired of existence, as from adverse experience in business transactions, ingratitude and neglect on the part of relations, or after a criminal or otherwise vicious course of life, instead of committing suicide out-and-out, seeing that such act is held in that country to be dishonorable, he compasses his own destruction by an indirect but no less certain method. Having prepared himself beforehand by stimulation upon opium (opium and hashisch together, Cabanis says), he sallies forth, kris (a sharp dagger) in hand, with a furious impetuosity, assailing and stabbing at any and every one that comes within reach. Upon this is raised the general cry, in which all who hear it join – “Amok! Amok! – Kill! Kill!” and the reprobate is pursued with knives and spears and weapons of every sort, until he is despatched. Such a practice was observed also by Lord Macartney.

To the opium bazaars, those socialistic golgothas in the heart of the frontier empire –

“Where Revel calls, and Laughter, vainly loud,

False to the heart distorts the hollow cheek,

To leave the flagging spirit doubly weak”

– must we turn, would we see in their sheer nakedness the excesses of depravity, the putrid sloughings of moral defilement.

At the shops above ground, in Amoy for instance, just as in the gilded caverns of subterranean Broadway, you encounter singing women and dancing girls, whose facile ingratiativeness, with the super-addition of a tinselly personnel, serves as a “standing invitation” to voluptuaries of all ages, from the juvenes imberbes, to whom dissipation is an untried novelty, up to the veteran gray-beards, who fain would “lag superfluous on the stage,” when the zest of enjoyment, though not the passion for it, has passed away. These Cyprians of an Oriental breed mingle in the scenes familiarly with the rest, imbibing their samshu with the complacency of old stagers, or, for change of scene, withdrawing a space to have a whiff from the opium pipe. Detached from the saloon proper, but communicating with it, is an interior receptacle – a living morgue in fact – and to this the inmates when reduced to the state of stupefaction are transferred, there to finish their stertorous sleep, and there to wake again to the horrors of the morning.

The exhibitions of self-abandonment, depravity, and wretchedness combined, so conspicuous in these half-way houses towards Pandemonium, have over and over the attestations of observers out of every class, government officials, missionaries, sojourning tourists, and gentlemen of the Profession as well; and the scenes noted by such are thus alluded to by the Hon. Mr. Martin:

“Here spectres of fearful vision haunt and distract the mind; the light that once emanated from heaven is now converted into a gloom of Tartarean blackness, and death reigns around. The opium shops such as I visited are the veriest types of hell upon earth.”

“Opium smoking (such is a declaration of the Medical Mission at Peking) is the great barrier to all progress, spiritual as well as temporal, among the Chinese; a barrier far more formidable, in that it excludes all hope of a social resurrection, than was ever the Great Wall to the Tartar invaders.”

“What warre so cruelle, and what siege so sore,

To bring the sowle into captivitie,

As that fierce appetite doth fain supplie!”


Leave a comment

The Pathological Action Of Opium

Orange County Sheriff’s Deputies walk along the Santa Ana Riverbed homeless encampment (by) Jeff Antenore

Editorial Note: Dr. Calkins’ Chapter is concerned with a brief review of the processes by which Opium use moves from a blissful to a pathological state. It is worth noting that, in spite of all the current panic about the “Opioid Epidemic” in America, non-prescription Opioid medications are readily available over-the-counter in well over 100 countries around the world, which begs the question: Is the “Opioid Epidemic” a pathological phenomenon, or is America a pathological society? If Opioid pills are openly and legally available just like aspirin in most of the world, why isn’t there a global Opioid Epidemic?

One of the main reasons why I believe that Dr. Calkin’s book is so important today is that while it traces the historical development of Opium addiction worldwide, without saying so directly it is clear that Opium addiction has historically taken a tighter grip of western societies, and in particular on American society, than it has elsewhere in the world.

One might argue that China, for example, is an exception because at the height of its Opium addiction tens of millions of Chinese were severely addicted. However, if tempted to make that argument one would have to account for the fact that before the British and American drug-pushers arrived on the scene Opium use in China was mainly, though not exclusively, an indulgence of the privileged classes, and these people made sure that the Opium they smoked was of the highest quality and thus far less addicting. And, after the Brits and Americans were kicked out Chinese society began to steady itself, and soon became a society where Opium was used, not abused by most Chinese people except those who were most oppressed by life at the bottom of the social and economic ladder. The same argument, and counter-argument, can be made for societies like Persia, India and Turkey.

I believe it is worth asking ourselves – is there something Karmic about American society that drives people at all levels of this society into brutal addiction to all kinds of substances, rather than to a temperate use of these same substances for life-enhancing purposes? Is it beyond imagining that the millions of native people that we slaughtered in order to take their lands, have gathered together in spirit to make our conquest and murder an invisible cancer that is eating away the American soul? Has America ever been the society that we have always proclaimed ourselves to be? Was there ever freedom, justice and liberty for all?  We should make no mistake – ultimately, we will be judged by history, and whatever the judgement it will not be swayed by all our slogans, hymns and propaganda. We will be judged by our deeds.

Dr. Calkins, writing as he did from the perspective of 1870, saw so much of what America has become already in the America of his day. It does make you wonder – what if anything has changed for the better since 1870?

Chapter VII: The Pathological Action Of Opium

(from) Opium And The Opium Appetite”, by Alonzo Calkins, MD (1870)

“Corpore languor inest, vexant insomnia, vixque Ossa tegit macies, nee juvat ora cibus.” Ovid.

“They are drunken, but not with wine; they stagger, but not with strong-drink.” – Isaiah.

 “Ogni fnedagliaha suorovescio” – the picture has its reverse as well as its obverse face.

Leaving the subordinate features to special occasion while we direct our attention to the salient points rather as they jut out upon the pathway, we shall soon perceive we have indeed a Via Dolorosa to traverse, with only here and there a gleam of sunshine to relieve the abiding gloom.

The morbific leaven, subtle and intangible in its primary evolution, acquires as it pervades the system a cumulative force, in this respect transcending arsenic, mercury, lead, indeed every substance whatever of known zymotic energy. The reaction, whether evolved obscurely or outbursting as with a shock, maturing it may be in three weeks, or perchance not under three years, will culminate in a crisis some time, as inevitable as it is portentous.

The organs that primarily and mainly feel the recoil are the brain with the spinal cord, and the great centre of alimentation, the stomach. Tardieu found in his autopsies sometimes a congestion of the cerebral channels, or else the condition of pulmonary apoplexy, or again both symptoms in conjunction. The peculiar excitement which the brain experiences, though approximating in some points to inebriation from alcohol, sustains towards delirium tremens only an analogical relation (Hobson). In the long course nervous tension becomes obtunded and relaxed, from non-oxygenation of the blood the heart is overloaded and the pulmonary vessels get sluggish, whence come palpitations and dyspnoea, with oppressive anhelations, so as almost to preclude exercise even the most moderate.

Erethism of the fauces – a sense of searing it may be (Trousseau) – occurs in progress, deprivation of appetite, the precursor of confirmed dyspepsia, ensues, and in the end every organ almost has become involved and every function perverted. An evidence not uncommon of a vitiated appetite is a partiality to saccharine substances.

Another organ with complex sympathies, the liver, is a common sufferer, being sometimes stimulated to an excessive reaction, but oftener relapsing into an established torpor. A case of mark is contributed by H. F. Quackenbos, M.D., of New York.

Miss P., a lady of easy condition in life, who died eventually at the early age of 26, began the use of opium ten years before that event, and for the mitigation of suffering caused by morbid obstruction. The routine life of this person was singular in various respects. At sunrise, when people generally are getting up for the day, she went to bed; about sunset she had her breakfast, and her dinner at midnight. Laudanum was the preparation in use, of which she took altogether for the day three wine glasses, the first at 9 o’clock, which acted always as a sedative against the shivery agitations of the morning, the second preceded the breakfast her first meal for the day, and the third was had about 11 p.m., when she was ready for the salon. In the daytime she would lounge about, wearing away the hours in a sort of half-stupor, answering a question with a labored grunt, as if comprehending only one-half and indifferent to the rest, and impatient like as one aroused from a recent doze; but when the deep hours of the night had arrived the transformation in her entire appearance was as if she had just come from some Armida’s bower, when she shone out upon the admiring throng as with a meteor-blaze.

A necroscopic examination revealed the organ more immediately associated with her decline, the liver, now of a purplish-brown hue, enormously hypertrophied (the biggest liver the doctor had ever seen), and so extremely indurated, that on accidentally falling from the hand to the floor it sounded more like a stone. This lady’s death was accelerated by thoracic inflammation, the cause of which was exposure after going from a cotillon party.

As a sequela to hepatic disorder a persistent vis inertia of the various organs is ere long established, and an unresponsiveness to purgatives, and verging to a habitual constipation. This sealing-up of the alvine channels may hold for a fortnight; or, if the wonted allowance has been intermitted (commonly by three days – Day), there is an alternating change, a relaxing of the intestinal constriction, a colliquative diarrhoea by a vicarious effort sets in, and stercoraceous bile loaded with scybalous concretions has free expulsion. An occasional concomitant, debilitating in the extreme whenever it occurs, is a free seminal drain (Macgowan).

Change in the entire contour becomes painfully apparent. Instead of the “complexionally pleasant” softness of hue such as arsenic is said to impart to the cheeks of the Styrian damsels, there is a bronzed complexion and a rigidity of skin like as of parchment, and a tendency to rigors also, unrelieved, unless occasionally, and by an intense sudation setting in. The eye kindles to flash in a momentary glint only, then shrinks again into its characteristic gaze upon vacancy, and the once sonorous ring of the voice has passed into a husky squeak.

An incidental (not uncommon) symptom is a general hyperesthesia, and this being fairly established, the nervous susceptivity may become so acute that not so much as an articulated sound, not the jar from a footstep, shall be endurable. Indeed, the physical torment present seems at times as if an aggregation of all conceivable tortures in their totality. Not the fiery thrills from tic douloureux, not the lancinating pains of cancer can hold comparison, for they, with their exacerbations, have their alternating relaxations; the pangs from opium hold one as with the grip of a vise. Twinges as from electric sparks shoot along the nerve-fibrils, or again flame-flashes radiate from circumference to centre and from spine to surface again. Under such combination of physical pressure body and mind with it succumb inevitably.

Privation

If for an extended period (as among the impoverished classes in China) the wonted supply is no longer, or only very irregularly procurable, glandular degenerescence, rickets, a hydropic tendency or albuminuria will likely ensue (Hill, Oxley). Such privation, indeed, in the view of some observers, as Pidduck and Little, may jeopardize the very life.

A confirmatory instance is from Chardin. A young Persian having a journey to make through a waste and scantily-populated territory, and where supplies of any sort were not to be counted on, had proceeded only half-way when his provisional stock of opium had become exhausted. There was but one alternative, to wheel horse about and put back with all speed for home again; but in the effort he sunk in a fatal collapse. Of this narrative it is safe to say at a venture, “Se non e vero, e bene trovato.”

The culmination of suffering there is yet to be named – the agrypnia or insomnia that must be endured. In place of the “heavy honey-dew of slumber,” come “Slumbers that are not sleep, But a continuance of enduring thought;” when the lone sufferer, with brain distraught and eyeballs as if glazed, must endure and endure hour upon hour, unremittedly agitated and hopelessly bereft of repose, until forced in the exhaustion of his agony to exclaim with Sigismunda, “Oh, for that quiet sleep which knows no waking!”

Sleep, if indeed procurable, is never equable and refreshing, but rather agitative and disquieting; meanwhile comes “The Dream, That mystical usurper of the mind, The spectres which no exorcism can bind.”

The satirist Scarron, quondam-husband of De Maintenon, who for years had been habituated to an evening dose of laudanum, declares in an auto-epitaph written by anticipation, that his first night in the grave was his first night of sleep.

At one period in his life so perseveringly tormented was De Quincey with a diablerie of night-spectres, that he declared despairingly he would “never, never sleep again;” and indeed for years, even after a long intermission, he could get but three hours at most, and then only past midnight.

Mrs. M. of W. New York, a woman now sixty years old, who has used morphine (5 grains for the day) now less than two years, even thus early sleeps but irregularly, occupying herself for the most part with noisy soliloquy for the edification of her family in the night-hours, and diversifying the day with visits to the office of an electro-galvanic praestigiator in the neighborhood.

The Erotic Force Of Opium.

Does this agent, upon repeated use, operate as an aphrodisiac, or as an anaphrodisiac, or is it simply neutral? The question has been variously mooted. In Eastern Asia the positive belief obtains, as appears from Cleyer: “Ad venexem enim ciere integrae nationes usum norunt, et in hunc se adhibent.”

A corresponding idea is entertained among the ladies of Turkey, as we learn from a note of Jahn: “Feminae Turcicae opio viros incitare in contubernium solent.” If the orgasm – favored, as the Chinese suppose, by the admixture of saffron – is really enhanced in the early use, a premature exhaustion may be expected in the sequel. According to Dr. Macgowan an abiding impotentia is the finale, and Brodie and Astley Cooper have expressed similar convictions. De Pouqueville and De Tort also ascertained concerning the theriakis of the Levant, that they are habitually tormented with a satyriasis as abortive as it is insatiable. Several of Dr. Palmer’s cases also appear to indicate a growing indifference to the peculiar marital relation and a prospective dissolution of the bonds.

A case, as untoward in progress as it was gloomy in the end, will illustrate some points in pathogenesis. The particulars, derived upon direct personal inquiry, are communicated by a familiar friend (that was) of the patient.

Dr. C, of the Genesee Valley, whose death at the age of 47 occurred two years since, had been an opium eater eleven years. Diphtheria (for this seems to be the proper name) appearing at an early period, had seriously impaired a constitution originally frail, leaving behind a nervous adynamia and a gastric derangement that had degenerated into’ a settled dyspepsia. To combat the existing gastralgia, and at the instance of a brother-doctor, morphine was put on trial, and thereafter continued for the rest of his life, though the relief anticipated never came. The patient grew melancholic and morose as time wore on, insisting he must die soon, and that the doctors were but ignoramuses, comprehending nothing of his maladies. For the last few years the average professedly consumed was over one drachm for the week, besides the very considerable leeway-reserve always to be calculated on in such cases. Constipation, early confirmed, became a permanent and most annoying symptom, over which purgatives exerted but a qualified efficacy, and which the syringe only scantily relieved. Insomnia was the rule, and sleep, such as it was, brought no refreshing. The eye wore the peculiar dazy glitter, a basilisk-lustre almost, such as the person describing had never seen the like of, or would willingly see again. The fauces became aphthous, a brownish sordes loaded the rugose tongue, and incessant twinges in the stomach kept the man in a sort of perpetual motion. As the months passed the patient got more and more intractable. At times he would be around, with vial in pocket, so as to have his stimulus at free command, and whoever does this will renew his dose without stint, bongre malgre; or if for prudential reasons put upon strict allowance, feeble and impotent as he was he would work himself into a frenzy, begging for his morphine with moans and sobs; or again, assuming the minatory attitude, he would denounce his friends for their barbarities with reproaches and imprecations. On a certain day (nor was this, as appears, a solitary instance) he must have swallowed what, upon estimate (and as was his admission to a professional friend), an entire drachm of morphine.

This child in sensitiveness, this monomaniac in wayward capriciousness, became in his last months so thoroughly restive under any and every restraint devised, that an allowance of whiskey was judged expedient. The drink was given in measured quantity at first, and in alternation with his morphine, but afterward conjointly with it, and finally was supplied ad libitum. The “vulnus in venis” had penetrated too deeply even for the plastic hand of a Machaon to reach. “Vraiment Thomme ne meurt pas, il se tue.”

A case from Dr. C. H. Wood illustrates the impetuosity of this morbid appetite, and the consequent inveteracy of the habit. C. a cordwainer, age 35, having suffered dysenteric attacks repeatedly (but not from intemperate living), had after various discouragements sought relief in morphine. The dose, very inconsiderable at first, and but gradually advancing, had got to be a stationary one, a drachm for the week, but now and then just twice that. The malady declined so as to occasion little trouble, but not so the urgency for the remedy. Trials at a change repeatedly undertaken were as often baffled. The patient, sustained by his adventitious support, was happy as a lord, and equal to a full day’s work at any time; but so surely as the supply was intermitted for any cause, such was the precordial distress he must take to his bed and have the doctor’s help right off. The skin had finally taken a deep icteric hue, as though it had been dyed in saffron. These victims of habit come and go, appearing and disappearing again, chacun a son tour.


Leave a comment

The Physiological Action Of Opium

(From) “Opium And The Opium Appetite”, by Alonzo Calkins, MD (1870)

Chapter VI: The Physiological Action Of Opium

“Impia sub dulci melle venena latent.” – Catullus.

“A dance of spirits, a mere froth of joy, That mantling high, now sparkles, now expires, Leaving the soul more vapid than before.” – Young.

Opium exerts its stimulative action in a twofold direction; upon the body, and upon the mind. The earliest ab-interiori impression is an indisposition to locomotion and an inaptitude to exertion every way. Muscular play, whatever there is of it, seems fortuitous rather than determinative, the lower propensities abate their intensive force and settle into torpidity, and the physical state is that of an automatic inertia. The will too, “that power triumphant where it dares,” lapses into a careless quiescence, the dormancy of reverie.

The transformations wrought upon the intellectual sense and the emotional susceptibilities during the opium-paroxysm partake indeed of the marvellous. The volitional faculty, that primum-mobile of the intellectual man, having shrunk into a mere passivity, judgment the balance wheel, now swayed this way and that in the conflict between the centripetal and centrifugal forces reason and imagination, is jolted. Opium, from its pivot-poise, and the soul now disenthralled from terrene clogs is wafted away upon fancy’s exultant pennons as by an electric rebound.

“Winging its flight from star to star, from world to luminous world, as far as the universe spreads its flaming wall,” to traverse if it may find some empyrean of a more ethereal and enrapturing entrancement than dull earth affords. The vision is as of some fairy mirage, without the tantalizing sense of vacuity, without the vapid disrelish arising from satiety.

Illustrative of this spiritual metamorphosis is the recorded experience of the hospital patient Mr. B.:

“Opium intensifies all the capacities for thought, with all the emotional capabilities; lifting the man to a higher plane of existence, where he may enjoy in panoramic perspective as it were, illusions no longer negations in seeming but veritable realities rather. The votary has now become a child in sensibility, a youth full-grown in vividness and splendor of conception, a more than man in copiousness of ideas and grasp of thought.”

The emotional developments are as novel and incongruous as are the proper conceptual creations. Querulousness and irascibility, though native to the man, recede for a space and give transient place to an amiable self-complacency, a self-satisfied disposition that would maintain accord with everybody and everything. Flashy wit in turgid declamation (the “rauca garrulitas”) here breaks out, to expire perchance even in the very utterance.

Another scenic “Paradise of Fools” has opened to the view; yet through all these transitional stages of rhapsodic exaltations and ephemeral inanities, the sense of personal identity is at no stage altogether effaced.

A few hours at the longest having lapsed, sleep begins. This may for a brief space be profound and death-like, a “consanguineus leti sopor,” as indicated by stertor and a dropping of the nether jaw, or it may be unquiet and fugitive at best, a hurried slumbering merely. The pattamaras (letter-carriers) on their journeys from Lahore, having reached their halting-stations, drop at once into a slumber which is profound only in the appearance; woe to the wayfarer who carelessly disturbs them! Not like the sleep on whose inventor the Governor of Barataria so piously invokes a blessing is this opium sleep, but rather a fitful yet oppressive somnolence, that leaves behind an aching brain, a fevered throat, and a languor and depression paralyzing to the whole body.

In sleep (but not with all) comes the dream. This, as if through some, spontaneity of working, takes shape and coloring less or more from the occupations and the musings of the day just gone, when, however, the “ruling passion,” under all diversities “Simulacra lacessunt Haec eadem animos nostros, quae cum vigilamus.” – Lucretius, of temperament or bias, is sure to come uppermost. The gamester is shuffling his cards once more, the stump orator boils over in vociferous harangue, the miser gloats again over his coffered hivings, the gourmand renews the feast at tables laden with appetizing viands, the castle-builder awakes to raptures anew, in a “chateau d’Espagne” his fancy has reared and decorated, the enthusiast devotee bending before Superstition’s shrine, hails in rapturous ejaculation the paradise o£ his dream where hope shall be exhausted in fruition.

Here too, libertinage finds its congenial atmosphere, but in enjoyments “linguae reticenda modestae,” for “Les sensations d’un tel reveur sur l’appareil genitale sont non-seulement voluptueuses, mais en rapport avec les tendences habituelles” (Libermann).

Such in its “best estate” is the virginal paroxysm of the opium-dreamer; a spasmodic ecstasy, an illusory enchantment, which in the recurrence becomes toned down to what has been termed a “static equilibrium, that can never be transcended again by any effort or device”.

The Bazaars and shops present a various and altogether a very repulsive picture. In a company some may be absorbed in their reveries and incognizant of the scenes around them; others grow mirthful and loquacious, breaking out into cachinnations the most absurd, and all because they cannot help it; others again, with pallid face and shrunken lips, are earnestly waiting in expectation of that excitement that shall dispel care and melancholy, and make them for a season oblivious of themselves.

Fatuity bordering on idiocy is the prominent feature around. Madden, on making acquaintance with the theriakis, remarked the glassy lustre and the incessant agitation of their eyes, the flushy hue of face, the swaying to and fro of the body in its unsteadiness, the ridiculous incoherency of their talk, and the extravagance of their maladroit gesticulations.

In the New Court, London, the camp-ground of a colony of foreigners, Chinese, Bengalese, Greeks, and others, is one of these opium dens under the direction of Ya-Hi, a man eighty-years old and himself an inveterate smoker, who makes the ordering of the nightly entertainment. Here in a close room styled “the Divan” the air of which is enough to stifle a stranger, may be seen numerous visitors arranged squat around the tea trays upon which their pipe-bowls rest, now indulging in vapid twaddle, now relapsing into idiotic mutterings, with the accompaniment of a motion of the lower jaw, sheep-fashion, or all may be quiet for the time, ready to break into mirthful extravagance at any instant – and for any or no cause. These people confess their willingness to work all day for procuring the furtive but fugitive enjoyment this receptacle holds out for the night.

Certain amateur explorers in the mines of experiment – all of course having specially in view “the general weal,” have recorded their sensations from making trial of opium.

Dr. Madden then sojourning at Constantinople visited the Theriaki Tchartchiffi or Grand Bazaar – the Lunatic Asylum, by some singular conjunction, stands fronting directly opposite – partly with the view of taking notes, but as much for making trial of the course, secundum artem, in his own person. After swallowing in succession several lozenges to the amount of 4 grains in all, he began to have an unwonted feeling of self-expansion corporeally, while at the same time things as seen in vision appeared in an exaggerated amplitude. Singularly indeed, so often as he opened his eyes the phantasmagorial figures would flit off and vanish, to return again and again. The doctor’s anticipations were in the sequel fulfilled only very indifferently.

Dr. Macgowan experimented upon himself in China, and with more satisfaction. His sensations assimilated much to those that come of inhaling nitrous oxide.

Note. In Winslow’s Journal of Psychology, 1859, is described in its details a very curious phenomenal case, that of a lady, who, for an organic sexual malady, had recourse occasionally to morphine. The case is the more remarkable in consideration of the extreme disproportion of symptoms to the inconsiderable amount of dose, which was 3 1/2  grains only.


Leave a comment

Traditional Methods Of “Eating” Opium

(From) “Opium And The Opium Appetite” by Alonzo Calkins, MD (1870)

Chapter V: Methodical Forms Of Opium Stimulation

“Que voulez-vous? Il est fait comme cela.” – Fr. Proverb

“Oh, that men should put an enemy into their mouths to steal away their brains!”- Othello.

A Gentleman’s Chandu Tools

The term Opodipsesis or Opodipsia is a legitimate coinage, being pathognomonic of the morbid condition; Opophagesis or Opophagia (Opium-eating) is a pseudonym. This latter term, however, being in accommodation to the popular idea – though indeed in no proper sense is opium ever taken by any eating process, unless hypothetically so – may serve for a technical convenience as well as any.

Among opium eaters two prevalent usages obtain: one consisting in swallowing a draught or a bolus, the other in firing a boulette or pea (the chandoo), and then inhaling the smoke through a pipe adapted to the purpose. Such pipe is known in China by the appellative yen-tsiang or opium-pistol. The people of the Flowery Kingdom universally smoke the chandoo; in Persia and the Levant they swallow the lozenge.

In the base of the bowl is a chink for transmitting the smoke into a stem, and above this is laid the pellet. The smoker, having taken the position of recumbency with a sideward inclination, the pipe in one hand and a small lamp for flame in the other, makes one full inspiration. Experienced operators swell the lungs to their full expansion, and after retaining the smoke a considerable time, as long practice enables them to do, finally exhale the fumes through the nostrils. When the spirituous preparation is used in such way, as by the grandees, a single whiff of the vaporized liquid permeates the entire cell area as with a thrill from a galvanic circuit.

For the novice a single pellet may suffice; not so for the practised smoker. Surgeon Hill describes a scene he witnessed on board the ship Sunda. The smoker, a young man of twenty-four years only, used eight pellets of the pea-size one after another, and all in the course of twenty minutes, making one long inspiration after each; he then fell into a profound sleep, which continued unbroken for three hours. The breathing was heavy and the circulation depressed, the pulsations being reduced by about one in twenty.

The progress towards stupefaction is less speedy as experience grows into a habit. Old stagers may require hours and many repetitions ere the coveted excitation is secured. Libermann, an attache of the Imperial army against the Yaous, and the author of surgical memoirs covering several years, speaks of pellets of 10-15 centigrammes in weight, 10, 20, or 30 of which, even up to 200, might be requisite to the complete somnolescence. Suppose the full influence attained in two hours, it will hold for four or five.

In certain regions modes altogether peculiar obtain. The Rajpoots, a military class exclusively, have the following fashion. On the arrival of a friend, the first question put to him is, “Umul Nya – Have you opiumed?” At their festive gatherings a big bowl of water, into which has been dropped a lump of opium, is set in the centre of the table. When the guests around have a dip each in turn, making a cup of the hollow of the hand. (Col. Tod, 1829.)

Another mode is observed in Siam. Here the company, be it opium or bhang that makes for the time the entertainment, sit squat in a circle, just like a Choctaw with his squaw and the rest, when settled in a ring around they are ready to pass from mouth to mouth the whiskey canteen.

The opium shops in the cities (where the hoi polloi, the “filth and scum” are prone to hive) are narrow rooms, secluded from outside observation, dingy and dank, with a solitary lamp suspended midway, apparently for the purpose of making darkness visible rather, and which are packed almost to suffocation. These dens of dissoluteness and debasement are but rarely visited by merchants and others of better class, unless with a view to greater privacy for the time.

“At the mansions of the rich (says Hue) there is usually found fitted up for the accommodation of friends, a private boudoir, richly ceiled, and garnished with superb adornments, such as art only can achieve and wealth procure; and here rich paintings, with choice scraps from Confucius, adorn the walls, and carvings in ivory with other articles of virtu, grace the tables. Here also is provided in chief the gilded opium pipe with all its appurtenances; and here host and guests, unrestrained by curious eyes, deliver themselves up without concern to the inebriating chandoo and its beatific transports.”

In Constantinople the bazaars are adorned in a style more accordant with the Asian pomp of the Ottoman. The visitor, having placed himself reclining upon a dais, the servitor in waiting, with a tactus eruditus such as ever designates the trained expert, deftly lays a single lozenge upon the tongue of the recipient, like as is the manner in a Christian country with the knight of the mortar and pestle, who “(Most mild of men!) Bids you put out your tongue, Then put it in again.”

As between pipe and bolus, in view of their pathologic consequences, says Surgeon Smith, there is little to choose. The chandoo being partially denarcotized, has the advantage in respect of purity, an advantage evenly counterbalanced if not more than that in this, that the area of cellular surface in the expanded lungs directly exposed to the narcotizing action is in excess so many times over of that of the stomach-membrane.

A third mode of bringing the system under the desired influence, is the Hypodermic method – subcutaneous injection by means of a syringe. In this way one-third the quantity that would ordinarily be taken by the mouth suffices, i.e. the same amount exerts a triple force. The practice, as favoring the habit, appears to be less hazardous in instances, but not certainly. Eulenberg in a case of disease made 1200 injections in all, and without manifest injury appertaining. For withdrawal he advises graduated reductions, with atropia incorporated in proportionately increased quantities. Any reliance placed upon this form of use, however, for its supposed comparative security, is likely to prove delusive.

Dr. Sewall of N. Y. has just reported two cases. In the first, the practice, after a two months’ continuance, was arrested, but not without much embarrassment; the second patient still continues on, writhing as helplessly as if, Laocoon-like, he were wound around in the coils of some monster-serpent. This gentleman, now of middle life, having suffered much from a diseased ankle, was advised (professionally) to use morphine hypodermically. The immediate effect being found most soothing and satisfactory, an indefinite continuance was suggested; and now, after a habituation for two years, the invalid is hopelessly delivered over, an abject slave to the habit, enervated in body and enfeebled in mind. The thigh of the affected limb is literally studded with punctures, to be counted by the score.

There is a case reported by Dr. Parrish, marvellous indeed in every view. The patient, a country physician, having now become an inmate of the Sanitarium, thus introduces himself before the public.

The Probe: by Joseph Parrish, M.D., Media, Penna., No. 1, 1869.

“Two years ago, I was suffering under a violent attack of neuralgia; meanwhile I could procure no sleep, not even any respite from suffering through the agency of any one of the recognized narcotics as employed in the usual modes. A medical friend suggested morphine, eighth-grain doses in solution by the subcutaneous mode. The relief experienced so sudden, so complete, I can never forget. Delivered of all pain, I was furthermore enjoying a repose indescribably entrancing. From the day on which these sensations occurred, I date my present bondage to a habit that has well-nigh ruined my health, prostrated my business, and blasted my hopes for coming time.”

This gentleman, of good position at home, with a moral constitution peculiarly sensitive under the pangs of self-reproach, and the mortification arising from having yielded to a fascination whose history he was sufficiently familiar with, now lay prostrate under the inertia of despair. The quantity he had fixed upon for the day was 5 grains regularly, and for 730 consecutive days he had used his instrument at home when time allowed, or again when abroad in his carriage; by the roadside; at the house of a patient; or during a halt at the tavern. The punctures, averaging several a day, were made irrespective of locality, though commonly near the seat of the central pain, and not unfrequently to the depth of an inch. They numbered altogether 2190. The morphine consumed amounted to 3650 grains, the equivalent of thrice such quantity taken in the ordinary way, that is to say, 23 ounces. For the sequel vide c. xxi.

Methodical Forms of Opium-Stimulation (Chapter 5, continued)

This being eminently an age of novelties and experimentations, there falls in here, not malapropos, a case quite unique in character certainly, and illustrative of what may be more delicately described perhaps by a euphemism, the Methodus per Inversionem. The case is contributed by Dr. L. of New York. Mrs. B., demi-veuve, age 25, of delicate habit and fair complexion, had been habituated to morphine three to four years, introducing solutions of the same intra-rectum, by means of a small acuminated glass syringe.

Repeated efforts to break off, with veratria for a substitute, had been of no permanent avail, for the appetite would not thus be put down. One day, in the height of the gold-excitement (Sept. 1869), the lady (a frequenter of the bourse) went down to Wall Street about ten o’clock in the morning, but without her usual supply which she in her hurry had left behind. Suddenly seized with overpowering tremors, she rushed into the first saloon she could find and swallowed a full tumbler of raw whiskey, and again a second after a little interval only, besides purchasing a bottle for use on the return home.

The doctor found her about 7 p.m., tremulous all over in body, and in great mental perturbation, for she had drunk, as appeared, a good deal besides the extra bottle, though without any inebriating feeling. Ale was advised for the night, and several pints were taken, but no sleep came. The case proving intractable (for “she must have her morphine or die” – so she said), was, after a few days’ treatment, abandoned. Her mode of using was (the account is her own), to pour into the palm of the hand a quantity – about 10 grains, as she illustrated by drawing a vial from beneath her pillow – then to transfer the same with water to another vial for solution, and from this to charge the instrument. The operation was repeated several times in the day, and abroad as well as at home; any by-place serving as a convenience, a side-room in a broker’s office, or a nook in a secluded street. Verily “knowledge by witty inventions” is not yet, it would appear, “past finding out.”


Leave a comment

Dr. Calkins Chapter IV: The Pharmacology Of Opium

The “War on Drugs” has been a great success in achieving its true intent – to fund the bloated bottomless budgets of untouchable government agencies, to pay outrageous salaries to squads of goons who otherwise couldn’t keep a minimum-wage job, to give half-human morons unrestricted license to kill, destroy and imprison millions of people, and to empower soul-dead halfwits with the freedom to practice their piggish racism.

As an intro to Chapter 4 of Dr. Calkins’ book, I thought that I would offer you a brief excerpt from an excellent article “Ethical and practical issues with opioids in life-limiting illness” By Robert Fine MD (in) Proceedings Of Baylor University Medical Center Journal 2007.

While Dr. Fine’s references are from the 1980s and 1990s, before the current “Opioid Epidemic”  whose advocates love to screech “Just one pill and you’re hooked”, the observations of these research studies are worth thinking about.

Quoting Dr Fine:

“… the reality is that opioids are rarely addictive in the setting of life-limiting illness. Substantial information in the peer-reviewed literature backs up this statement. For example:

  • In 1980, Porter and Jick reported on a prospective study of 12,000 hospitalized patients who received at least one opioid preparation for moderate to severe pain. They found only four reasonably well-documented cases of addictive behavior (1)

  • In 1981, Kanner and Foley noted that the medical use of opioids rarely leads to drug abuse or to iatrogenic opioid addiction among cancer patients (2)

  • In 1982, 181 health care professionals with an average of 6 years of experience who worked at 93 burn units and cared for at least 10,000 hospitalized patients reported no case of addiction in patients treated for burn pain (3)

  • In 1992, Schug et al reported only one case of addiction among 550 cancer patients who experienced pain and were treated with morphine for a total of 22,525 treatment days (4)

  • In 1992, Zenz et al reported no incidents of serious toxicity or addiction among 100 patients with diverse pain syndromes who received narcotics for prolonged periods (5)

  1. Porter J, Jick H. Addiction rare in patients treated with narcotics. N Engl J Med. 1980;302(2):123. [PubMed]

  2. Kanner RM, Foley KM. Patterns of narcotic drug use in a cancer pain clinic. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1981;362:161–172. [PubMed]

  3. Perry S, Heidrich G. Management of pain during debridement: a survey of U.S. burn units. Pain. 1982;13(3):267–280. [PubMed]

  4. Schug SA, Zech D, Grond S, Jung H, Meuser T, Stobbe B. A long-term survey of morphine in cancer pain patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1992;7(5):259–266. [PubMed]

  5. Zenz M, Strumpf M, Tryba M. Long-term oral opioid therapy in patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1992;7(2):69–77. [PubMed]

(From) “Opium And The Opium Appetite”, by Alonzo Calkins, MD 1870

Chapter IV: The Pharmacology Of Opium

“Incedis per ignes Suppositos cineri doloso.” – Horace.

O true Apothecary, thy drugs are quick!” — Romeo and Juliet.

Opium (from Onos, the Juice) – Ufiyoon in Arabic, Ufeent in Hindu, O-fu-jung in Chinese – is the crystalline liquid that exudes from the capsules of the Poppy, and what Galen has poetically denominated “Lachrymae papaveris” – poppy tears. All species of the family yield opium in some proportion; that known to commerce is in botanical nomenclature the Papaver Somniferum.

Opium by pharmaceutical classification ranks among the gums. It is stimulant and exhilarating, tonic and roborant, or anodyne and soporific, according to the indications for using, the quantity employed, and the period of use.

The purest extract is procured from the borders of the great Mediterranean basin; Europe and the United States (where the poppy has scarcely as yet secured a habitat) have their supplies mainly from India.

Bengal opium, often adulterated by admixture with foreign ingredients, is inferior in strength to that from Turkey. At the Exposition Universelle held in 1867, specimens from Persia and the Levant proved to be of double the strength as compared with others from India (Schroff). The opium of the Peninsula is bitter and nauseous to the taste, that from Western Asia is more acrid and heating. In France the imported gum, having been subjected to a process of depuration, is afterward compacted into masses of definite strength and inclosed in a stamped envelope of metal-foil. This is the “opium titre,” as known in the Paris market.

Prepared Opium, alias Smoking-opium, is properly an extract, procured by subjecting the crude gum to a thorough filtration with water assisted by heat for the menstruum. In China the process is conducted with the most scrupulous care, as anything of an inferior quality would be rejected by the chief purchasers, i.e. the grandees, positively and altogether. This article, known as the Chandoo (Tschandii), which constitutes about 54 percent of the original, is marked by a more pronounced development of the exhilarant and sedative properties, with a corresponding reduction upon the narcotic element. A similar preparation is the Ya-pieu-kao, made up of Indian and native opium in mixture.

The residuum of all (faex) is denominated Tye or Tinco, and there is further a refuse of a refuse, the Samshung.

In the region of the Bosphorus there is used a confection made by combination with aromatics, and fashioned into the lozenge form. Pellets of the sort are put up in packets bearing the label Mash-Allah or Maslach (“The great gift of God”), to be exposed for public sale (Ollivier).

Opium is variously combined, besides, with other narcotics. At Cairo is found a conserve, El Mogen (Magoon), in which hyoscyamus is the adjunct. In India it is cannabis resin, or the datura, or nux vomica. In Borneo opium and tobacco are often smoked together.

The Turks supplement the gum with the Sublimate of mercury to the extent even of 10 percent of the mass, and for the purpose of intensifying the stimulation. There was an opium eater at Broussa who used 40 grains of the sublimate. A more marvellous instance is the case of Suleyman Yeyen, a centenarian well known towards the close of the last century as a familiar pedestrian about the streets of Constantinople, who had attracted the notice of De Pouqueville, Hobhouse, and other Europeans. This veteran among the eaters, having used opium a lifetime until with him it had become effete, betook himself one day to the shop of a Jew, and procured a drachm of the mercurial. This Israelite in name that was (but not “an Israelite indeed”), having anxiously expected for over a day the reappearance of his singular customer, began to apprehend a summons from the Cadi to answer to the charge of complicity in a suicide, and forthwith shut up shop. To his intense relief the desired visitant returned after the lapse of two days, and for a fresh supply.

Just give it a try – free sample!

Morphia (Morphine) is an alkaloid extract, in which the sedative property is amply developed, but where the narcotic force is reduced to the minimum. Good opium yields 8 to 10 percent or more. This is the form preferred by the more intelligent classes, and what is held in superior favor by the sex. The “dear morphine” it is that commands the especial patronage of English ladies. An additional reason for preference is this, that in the protracted use less disturbance of the stomach eventuates.

Laudanum – in the French Codex an Alcoole – is a spirituous solution. This form, which in China is limited to the gentry rather, is in the U. S. the choice of plebeians, and of such as have broken down upon alcoholic potations. In Persia there is made a vinous liquor of similar character, the Coquemar or Cocomar (D’Herbelot). Laudanum has long been the favorite agent for effecting suicide, but of two hundred cases of direct attempts and accidental substitutions through mistake, as appears from a collation of cases made by the writer, laudanum was the form in 138 of them; and of 60 suicides pure, 46, or 4 out of every 5, were accomplished by the same means.

The record for England and Wales, 1863-67, is 682 out of an aggregate of 2,097 instances. In reference to the suicidal propensity generally it may be here observed, that when traceable to moral obliquities it is commonly consummated, if not by laudanum, then by some other poison proper; whereas cases that have their origination in pure despondency are oftener finished by the more summary process of self-strangulation.

Opium in conjunction with alcohol in any form operates with a revivified energy. This reciprocal action did not escape the notice of Galen. Champagne wine or anisette-cordial, for instance, would be an “extra hazardous” adjunct. In a goodly city of ours, among whose conspicuous adornments are the long colonnades of towering elms that enfilade its avenues, there was an Esculapian brother, whose wont was to prepare himself with liberal potations of the like preparatory to the expected soiree, and once mingled with the throng, to grow decidedly impulsive and loquacious in the general not only, but amusingly demonstrative and ingratiative in the particular.

Black-Drop (Quaker Drop) is an acetous tincture. This, as compared with laudanum, exerts a duplicated sedative action, but holds in narcotic influence an inferior place. The merits of this “drop” are certified to by a Philadelphian, a purchaser of the stimulus by the gallon for a good while, who, after ample trial, assures her friends that the preparation is less perturbative of the proper nerve energy, and is furthermore less damaging to the complexion.

McMunn’s Elixir is a denarcotized laudanum, prepared with ether for a menstruum. Extensively used empirically, and held in request by eaters, it has a large patronage in regular practice.

Paregoric is an aromatized laudanum, camphor being the adjunct. This elder elixir, originally intended for the infantile period, has long enjoyed a most intimate family hospitality.

Accept No Substitutes!

Godfrey’s Cordial. This and the preceding, with “Mistress Winslow’s Syrup,” constitute together a sort of triad of household idolship undisturbed by any rivalling interlopers. The monopoly of patronage so long secured to the first two named is now arrogated by the Soothing Syrup and its arriere-garde, “Mother Bailey’s Quieting Syrup.”

The basis of Winslow – “haud ignota loquor” – is morphine; what had been certified to before upon indubitable testimony is now assured by a recent analysis, which gives nearly one grain of the alkaloid to an ounce of the liquid. The dose for an infant, as per label, is at least five times over what ordinary prudence would authorize. This nostrum, now distributed broadcast over the country, has well-nigh distanced all competitors.

Such are the elixirs and syrups which, as administered whether by deluded mothers or crafty nurses, have soothed many and many a luckless infant into that state of quiet that knows no after-disturbing. Among our publicans there obtains only a very vague apprehension of the pregnant fact that the popular nostrums of the day, the cholera-drops, the pain-killers, the lung-troches and other pectorals, draped as they are in a flaunty incognito, or ensconced as they may be behind the objective screen of a caveat – enough, if mustered into line, to make up a regiment — owe whatever inherent virtue (if any) they possess to the omnipresent leaven, opium.

The stereotyped cautionary phrase, Caveat Emptor, should be the statutory appendix to every one of their trade-marks.

The manipulators in this species of manufacture – marauders upon society they are, for out of the life-blood of the people comes their bread – would appear to be the legitimate representatives, by a sort of apostolic succession, of a class described by Celsus, the Circulatores (“homines circumforanei”), who went about enticing and amusing the popellum or dregs by their high-and-low tumbling, and all, “lucri causa”, for filthy lucre’s sake.

The only difference between now and then appears in this – the originals circulated themselves, their imitators circulate placards.


Leave a comment

Commercial Origins Of The Global Opium Pandemic

(From) “Opium & The Opium Appetite” by Alonzo Calkins, MD published 1870

Chapter II: The Commercial History Of Opium In Europe And The Orient

“Audax lapeti genus Ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit.” – Horace.

“Japheth shall dwell in the tents of Shem” – The Patriarch

Among Semitic peoples it originally was where the poppy extract, Opium, found its marts and consumers; and if Egypt was the originator, Persia certainly “cette patrie ete pivot” says Ferishta, is the historic foster-mother. The Moslem, it is reckoned, carried opium to the China-frontier as early as the tenth century or before. Chardin, the traveller, who visited Persia towards the close of the seventeenth century, found the article a familiar acquaintance there, for Schah Abbas had put it under the ban of a decree a hundred years before this. According to this author, the Tartar hordes at the era of the Conquest, 1644, took opium along with them across the Great Wall; yet for more than a century after, the new immigrant made no measurable advance, being restricted to medicinal purposes solely, e.g., in dysentery and melancholia.

The importations into China, from alien sources, had not by 1767 exceeded 200 packages annually. From so small beginnings the trade thus initiated by Portuguese adventurers at Whampoa has now, upon various estimates, Johnston’s with the rest, so expanded as to comprehend an aggregate of populations numbering above 700,000,000 of individuals, in their various distributions over Persia, India, China and Tartary, Malacca and the Sunda Isles, and Turkey and the Levant, even to Mauritania and Egypt; indeed, whithersoever the Crescent has conducted migrations opium has borne company, finding for itself successive lodgments.

The introduction of opium into the Island of Formosa is credited by Choo-Tsun to the Hung Maou or red-haired (the English); another account implicates more directly the Dutch merchants of Batavia.

Hindustan, which furnishes eight-tenths of the total supply for China, might be styled, and without hyperbole, an immense poppy-garden. The importations from India into China were: 1767 – 200 caissons. 1800-1810 – 2,500 piculs (133 lbs/picul), average. 1820 – 4,700 (7,000) piculs; 1830 – 18,700 piculs 1840 – (1838, 48,000) 50,000 piculs; 1850 – (1848-9, 54,000) 55,000 piculs 1860 – 60,000 piculs upon estimate; 1867 – 75,000 piculs (=10,000,000 lbs.)

For the later decennial periods there has been a falling off below the two percent of annual increase that was, a reduction variously ascribable to poverty, increasing celibacy, and impaired fecundity and infanticide, the direct and palpable offshoots of the national vice.

Opium being in China a dutiable article, a large margin must be allowed for the contraband traffic. Some presumptive estimate may be formed of the extent of such traffic from an item of the commercial history of the country for 1839.

About this year had been issued the famous “Edict,” which proscribed and condemned to destruction all the opium then in the ports. Within a twelve month thereafter there passed through Canton 1800 piculs, upon 700 of which only, or 40 percent of the whole, was the duty paid. In view of the fact that there is to be guarded a coastline of twenty-five hundred miles, swarming with a population whose supreme passion is the procurement of opium at all hazards, legitimately or illicitly, an addition of 12 percent to the customs figures would be a safe reckoning.

There is besides a large home production, which Dr. Macgowan, more than twenty years since, estimated as coming up to twenty-five percent on the importations. The cultivation has proceeded for years in the southwest province, Yunnun, and has extended (on the authority of Waterton) to at least six provinces, from one of which alone there annually go out several thousand chests. The accounts for 1869 are, that the manufacture as well as the consumption is increasing at rapid rates, particularly in Mongolia and Mantchuria. The home growth must be very large; indeed, upon a calculation made by G. S, Cooke, then resident in the country, it approximates to the amount imported.

Suppose this domestic supply to have now reached 35 percent only as compared with the foreign, the people of China are now (1867) consuming in a single year 110,620 piculs = 14,750,000 pounds of opium. To such swelling proportions has this “cloud no bigger than a man’s hand” expanded itself, and within the range of just one century!

The tabulated records are confirmed every way by miscellaneous facts. As long ago as 1842, Surgeon G. H. Smith, of Pulo-Penang. estimated that one-tenth of the people of the kingdom were then addicted to the opium pipe, and one-third of that proportion in Malacca. The returns made by Sir John Bowring for Canton and the contiguous districts give a ratio of 26 percent; three local reports, made by native officials, comprise 4,600 smokers out of a total of 13,500 individuals. In Rajpootana (Col. Todd), the use of opium in one form or another is well- nigh universal; and what is true of this district is equally so of Tartary, where the Abbe Hue found the pipe in requisition among all classes and everywhere, their tribunals and solemn assemblies not excepted.

In 1843, when the Rev. Mr. Lowrie was at Amoy, it seemed to him that almost everybody was given to the stimulus; and Johnson, missionary at Fou-Cliow in 1S67, found a state of things well-nigh as bad. As for the hospitals and almshouses of China, they present records to which nothing corresponding as chargeable to alcoholics is yet furnished by similar institutions in our own land. In 1844, at Dr. Little’s House of Correction in Singapore, of the 44 inmates, 4 out of 5 were found to be consumers; a proportion agreeing exactly with the observations of Surgeon Smith.

Compare now, by way of contrast, 1867 with 1840. To the 50.000 pounds of 1840 add 25 percent (for the home culture), making no allowance for clandestine importations where there was little or no inducement to such, the ratio of advance for this 27 years is as 185 : 100, which, compounded with that of population.

In 1840 the East India Company realized out of the opium traffic with China the sum of $4,000,000; in 1850 the receipts reached $15,000,000, a figure which had doubled by 1858. More than ten years back (1854) the Chinese paid this company for opium alone a sum exceeding in valuation the total export of their teas and silks together. Indeed, as Dr. Allen has calculated, the annual surplus profit at the time from this branch of trade alone was adequate to the liquidation, in the course of seven years, of the twenty million debt that had been incurred by the act of colonial emancipation, principal and interest both.

To such proportions has this species of trade tentatively undertaken by a few roving mariners now culminated, fostered as it has been by the indomitable greed of English merchantmen. The humanising tendencies of British civilization, as enforced and supported by British artillery, are very palpably illustrated in a saying current among the people of China, of this sort: “During the opium war the English gave their Chinese acquaintance cannonballs of iron, and after the war, cannonballs of opium; so that our people had the desperate privilege of choice as between being shot to death and poisoned to death.”

“ Revenons a nos moutons – oh nos cheres moutons!” 

Great Britain & The Continent

Paracelsus introduced opium to the notice of Europeans just about two centuries ago. All over Europe the gum bears the highest repute for its therapeutic powers, but as a narcotic stimulant it is little known beyond the limits of the English people and the Parisians. England alone (for Scotland is exempt, and Ireland nearly so) probably consumes more than France and Germany and the Peninsula altogether.

Importations into Great Britain (vide Parliamentary Documents). 1830 – 22,000 pounds; (over re-exportations). 1835- 30,400; 1840 – 41,000; 1850 – 44,000; 1860 — 98,300; 1867 – 125,000. 

Population. 1840 – 27,000,000, 1860 – 29,000,000. 1867 – (1869, 31,000,000) 30,000,000.

1856 Dr. Hawkins of King’s Lynn ascertained upon inquiry that the chief consumption was in Lancashire and other districts, within which are embraced the large manufacturing centres, Sheffield, Manchester, Birmingham, Preston, Nottingham – cities that make up an aggregate population bordering on two millions. The operatives in Lancashire alone (Liverpool excluded) number about two hundred thousand. A chemist in one locality informed Dr. H. he had, in a single year, sold in divided parcels to the amount of two hundred pounds of the drug. Another dealer had thus disposed of a hundred and forty pounds, with the extras of Laudanum and Godfrey’s Cordial, to the extent of ten gallons per week. Here was opium enough, sold at one shop alone, adequate to the supplying of fifteen hundred persons with one drachm of laudanum every day of the year. In the town of Preston, 1843, as was ascertained, sixteen hundred families were regular purchasers of Godfrey, making a ratio of twelve and a half upon the entire population.

Editor’s Note: Godfrey’s Cordial (also called Mother’s Friend) was among the most widely used patent medicine given to infants and children in England and the United States during the latter years of the 18th and early part of the 19th centuries. It was almost always given without a physician’s advice, and was used for a wide variety of symptoms ranging from run-of-the mill fretfulness and colic, to the severest forms of dehydration caused by explosive, bloody diarrhea. Despite the innocuous name, it was a dangerous preparation for infants because of its heavy opium content; Godfrey’s Cordial contained one grain of opium in each two ounces.

Some years since, Dr. A. S. Taylor, an eminent toxicologist, presented, by appointment, to a Committee of Parliament, a report of observations and inquiries made upon a survey of Marshland and the contiguous districts. A druggist whom he met in one parish, assured him he had made sales in small packages during the year previous to the amount of a thousand pounds; a quantity not equal to the demand by a half. This informant declared further, that there was not a village in all that region round but could show at least one shop and its counter loaded with the little laudanum vials, even to the hundreds, for the accommodation of customers retiring from the workshops on Saturday nights. Thus has an aggressive trade with the foreigner recoiled to plague the aggressor in his own homesteads.