This will be the final post in the “Dr. Tibbles Coca Leaf Herbal Remedies” series. In this post I’ll present some of Dr. Tibbles’ core herbal remedies, those that are mentioned frequently in association with other specific remedies for specific illnesses. It is very interesting how Coca Leaf is integrated into these medicines, no doubt accounting for much of the success Dr. Tibbles apparently had in treating patients over a long career. It is also interesting to note that many of these medicines did not use Coca Leaf – which gives one even greater confidence that the good doctor knew what he was doing.
NEUTRALIZING MIXTURE AND SOOTHING SYRUP
Rhubarb Root, bruised 1 ounce
Cinnamon Bark, bruised 1 ounce
Boil in one quart of water for twenty minutes, strain on to the following:
Coca Leaf 2/4 ounce
Peppermint Herb 1 ounce
Bicarbonate of Potash 3/4 ounce
Let them stand for half an hour; gently press out the liquid, strain & add a little water until the whole bulk of liquid measures one quart, then add one and a half pound of lump sugar, gently heat over a fire, do not boil; strain, cool, and bottle.
Half a teaspoonful to one tablespoonful in a little warm or cold infusion of Pennyroyal, or of water, every three or four hours.
Valuable in Constipation, Indigestion, Cholera, Sickness, &c, and for diseases of children.
Soothing Syrup 8 ounces
Brain Feeder 2 1/2 ounces
Sweet Spirit of Nitre 1 ounce
Tincture of Pleurisy 1 ounce
Tincture of Sculcap 1/2 ounce – mix.
Two teaspoonsful to one tablespoonful to be taken in a little water three or four times a day. Half quantity for children. A most excellent remedy for pain of every description, fainting, palpitation of the heart, inflammations, suppression of urine, and kidney affections, headache, &c, &c.
Brain Feeder 3 ounces
Compound Essence of Cocaine 1 ounce
Glycerine Extract of Coca ½ ounce
Bicarbonate of Potash 2 drams
Dissolve one pound of Lump Sugar in a quart of boiling water, strain, when cold add the above ingredients, mix.
A wineglassful as required. This is truly a pick-me-up for all sufferers from nervous depression, debility, indigestion, brain exhaustion, caused either by excess of physical or mental exertion. This mixture possesses wonderful sustaining powers and a dose of it should be taken by all individuals, every two hours, before and during their work. It is not to be equaled in all cases of debility of body or mind. Be sure that the bowels are regulated by taking occasional doses of the Chionanthus Liver Pills. We advise all sufferers to try it.
Agrimony 2 ounces
Boil in one gallon of water for fifteen minutes, strain; add sufficient water to make up for what has evaporated; add half a pound of sugar, simmer gently for a few minutes, take off the scum; strain; add one ounce of Cream of Tartar and two ounces of Compound Essence of Cocaine. Drink ad libitum. The above forms a most pleasant and refreshing summer beverage.
A TONIC FOR NEURALGIA, TIC, AND ALL PAINFUL NERVOUS AFFECTIONS.
Brain Feeder 2 ounces
Compound Essence of Cocaine 1 ounce
Tincture of Sculcap 1 ounce
Fluid Extract of Motherwort 1 ounce
Tincture of Gelsemin 1/2 ounce
Bicarbonate of Potash 2 drams mix.
Dose. — One teaspoonful to be taken in sweetened water every two or three hours. It is also an excellent remedy applied externally, by rubbing the parts with a little of the mixture.
Powdered Rhubarb 1 dram
Magnesia ½ dram
Bicarbonate of Potash ½ dram
Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia 1 dram
Dill Water, sweetened well with sugar 4 ounces
One teaspoonful to one tablespoonful (according to age) to be taken twice or three times a day. Shaking the bottle before each dose is poured out.
Rhubarb, in Powder 5 drams
Aloes, Barbadoes, Powdered 1 dram
Gum Myrrh, Powdered 1 dram
Castile Soap, shavings 30 grains
Extract of Hyoscyamus 1 dram
Extract of Camomile 1 dram
Mix well, and roll into 140 pills taken as required.
Bayberry Bark, powdered 6 ounces
Curcuma, powdered 9 ounces
Ginger, powdered 6 ounces
Pleurisy Root, powdered 2 drams
Allspice 2 ½ ounces
Cayenne, powdered ½ ounce
Ipecacuanha Powder 1 dram
Lobelia Powder 1 dram
Blood Root Powder ½ dram
A quarter or half a teaspoonful, repeated every twenty minutes if required. During the action give plenty of the Compound Essence of Cocaine in warm sweetened water. This Powder is admissible in all cases where an emetic is indicated: in croup, chronic affections of the chest, liver, stomach, or in febrile diseases.
Pleurisy Root, bruised 1 ounce
Spikenard Root, bruised 1 ounce
Boil in one quart of water for twenty minutes, then pour the boiling liquid onto
Boneset 1 ounce
Coca Leaf 1 ounce
Cherry Bark coarse powder 2 ounces
Composition Powder 1/4 ounce
Let them stand for one hour, stirring occasionally, then strain, and add Decoction of Slippery Elm, sufficient to make one quart of mixture.
To the mixture add two pounds of lump sugar; simmer gently for fire minutes; when cold add
Tincture of Lobelia 2 ounces
Essence of Spearmint 1/4 ounce
One teaspoonful to one tablespoonful (according to age) to be taken every three hours or as required. This is an excellent remedy in coughs, tightness of the chest, difficulty of breathing, asthma, &c, &c.
Yellow Dock Root 1 ounce
Prickley Ash Bark 1 ounce
Tag Alder Bark 2 ounces
Boil in one quart of water down to one and a half pint, pour the boiling liquid on to the following ingredients:
Coca Leaf 1 ounce
Queen’s Delight, powdered 1/2 ounce
Powdered Rhubarb 1/2 ounce
Composition Powder 1 teaspoonful
Let them stand together for one hour, strain.
One or two tablespoonsful to be taken three times a day. This is an excellent remedy in all impurities of the blood: boils, ulcers, cancers, venereal diseases, scrofula, skin diseases, &c ,&c.
Burgundy Pitch 3 ounces
White Turpentine (Gum Thus.) 2 ounces
Melt and then add 6 ounces of good Tar, mix, strain while hot, then add of blood root, poke root, lobelia, all in powder, of each one and a half ounce; mix well.
Directions: Spread a little on a piece of soft leather, and apply over the affected part. Keep on as long as can be borne. This plaster brings out on the skin small pustules or eruptions, and causes a slight discharge. It is an excellent application in all cases where counter-irritation is required, as in the case of severe internal inflammations.
Marshmallow tops, green and bruised 8 oz.
Simmer, in 8 ounces of Olive Oil, for half an hour, press out the fluid portion, strain, and add of
Spermaceti 2 1/2 ounces
White Wax 1 ounce
Dissolve by the aid of gentle heat; when dissolved remove to a cool place, and stir constantly until quite set. This is an excellent simple ointment for all kinds of cutaneous eruptions.
POULTICE NO. 1.
Crushed Linseed 2 ounces
Ginger, in powder 1/2 ounce
Lobelia Herb, powdered 1/2 ounce
Mix together, and pour on sufficient boiling water to make a poultice of convenient consistence. This is a very good and beneficial poultice in removing all internal inflammatory affections: such as bronchitis, inflammation of the throat, lungs, bowels, stomach, bladder, pleurisy, &c.
POULTICE no. 2.
Slippery Elm Bark Powder – a sufficient quantity
Mix with a little hot water or milk so as to make a poultice. This poultice will be found to exceed every other in point of efficacy. It is capable of very extensive application for both external and internal inflammations. It is useful in inflammation of the breast, felons, white swellings, wounds, sores, boils, ulcers, gatherings, &c, &c.
DECOCTION OF PLEURISY ROOT.
Pleurisy Root, bruised 1 ounce
Water 1 ½ pint
Boil gently, until the whole bulk of liquid is reduced to one pint.
One teaspoonful to two tablespoonsful to be taken as often as may be required. It forms a convenient vehicle for the administration of other medicines. This is excellent, when taken in conjunction with the Brain Feeder, for all kinds of fever, colds, coughs, &c.
INFUSION OF SLIPPERY ELM.
Slippery Elm Bark, sliced thin 1/4 ounce
Boiling water 1 pint
Place in a covered vessel and let them stand for one hour; strain. It is very useful in inflammation of the stomach, bowels, eyes, &c. and is a very valuable medicine in dysentry, diarrhoea, and bowel complaints generally. Drink freely.
DECOCTION OF MARSH MALLOW ROOTS.
Marsh Mallow Root, in slices 1 ounce
Water 1 1/2 pint
Boil it fifteen minutes, let cool, strain. Drink freely. It is a good substitute for Infusion of Slippery Elm Bark, and may be used in all cases where that infusion is indicated. We may also add that it is of great value in inflammation of the bladder or kidneys.
INFUSION OF GOLDEN SEAL.
Golden Seal, in powder 1 ounce
Boiling water 1 pint Let it stand for half an hour; strain.
One teaspoonful to two tablespoonsful three or four times a day. This is of great service in chronic derangement of the liver and stomach, and is invaluable as a tonic during convalescence from exhausting diseases, such as bilious and typhoid fever, inflammation of the stomach, diarrhoea, dysentery, &c.
INFUSION OF SNAKE ROOT
Snake Root (Aristolochia Serpentaria) , bruised, 1 ounce
Boiling water 1 pint
Infuse for two hours in a covered vessel, strain.
One or two tablespoonsful three or four times a day.
DECOCTION OF RASPBERRY LEAF. (Raspberry Leaf Tea.)
Raspberry Leaf 1 ounce
Water 1 ½ pint Boil for twenty minutes; strain. Drink freely. This decoction is valuable in diarrhoea, dysentery, and hemorrhage of the stomach and bowels. It is also much used by females.
SYRUP OF BLACKBERRY ROOT
Blackberry Root Bark 2 ounces
White Sugar 4 ounces
Brandy 1 ounce
Water 1 quart
Boil the root in a quart of water, down to ten ounces, strain, add the sugar, and when quite cold add the brandy.
Two teaspoonsful to one tablespoonful three times a day, This is very valuable in chronic bowel complaints.
Coca Leaf 3 ounces
Angelica Root Powder 2 ounces.
Cranesbill Root Powder 2 ounces
Gum Myrrh Powder 1 ounce
Bayberry Bark Powder 2 ounces
Camphor 1/2 ounce.
Cayenne 1/2 ounce.
Spirits of wine .3 pint
Macerate for 21 days, with occasional agitation; filter.
One, two, or three teaspoonsful, in a little water, every 30 or 60 minutes. For cholera, diarrhoea, cramp, &e.; and for flooding in females no remedy has been more successful.
Yarrow Flowers 1 ounce
Elder Flowers 2 ounces.
Boiling Water 1 1/2 pint.
Let them stand for one hour; strain.
Two teaspoonsful to two tablespoonsful to be taken every two hours. A never failing remedy in all cases of erysipelas, inflammations, &c.
MIXTURE FOR CHRONIC RHEUMATISM
Tincture of American Valerian 1 ounce
Tincture of Black Cohosh 1 ounce
Tincture of Prickly Ash 1 ounce
Glycerine Extract of Coca Leaf 1 ounce.
Dose. — One teaspoonful every three or four hours, as required. Valuable in all cases of chronic rheumatism, lumbago, sciatica, &c.
WASH FOR INFLAMED EYES.
Rose water 1 ounce
Tincture of Golden Seal 1 dram.
Laudanum 1 dram. Mix Wash the eyes with a small portion of the mixture, twice or thrice, daily.
Solidified Copaiba 1 ounce
Alcoholic Extract of Cubebs ½ ounce
American Mandrake Powder ½ ounce.
Oil of Juniper 30 drops.
Mix. Roll into about 300 pills.
One or two, three or four times a day. This pill invariably cures or affords relief in all diseases of the kidneys or bladder. For chronic affections of the bladder, kidneys, urethra, and also in gravel, gonorrhoea, gleet, and fluor-albus, it is superior to any similar preparation.
Extract of Poke Root 1 ounce
Extract of Red Oak Bark 1 1/2 ounce.
Extract of Clover Heads 1 ounce.
Mix. Spread on leather as required. An excellent external application for cancers; to be used in conjunction with the alterative mixture.
Finely Powdered Sugar 8 ounces
Slippery Elm Bark Powder 4 ounces
Fine Oatmeal 8 ounces
Rice Flour 8 ounces.
Cinnamon Powder 1 dram.
Mix well, until they are thoroughly incorporated. Take one or two teaspoonsful and mix with about 4 ounces of boiling water; stir briskly while preparing. This is an excellent preparation for invalids, whether adults or children, and may be taken with advantage at any time.
Angelica Root Powder 8 ounces
Bayberries Powder 6 ounces
Lobelia Herb Powder 5 ounces
Ginger Root Powder 5 ounces
Gum Myrrh Powder 3 ounces
Sulphite of Soda 3 ounces
Cayenne Powder 2 ounces
For a horse: Two ounces in a pint of warm gruel. Cows the same. Calves: Half an ounce. Sheep the same. Lambs a quarter of an ounce. To be repeated as required. Wrap up in rugs so as to sweat. Regulate the bowels by giving Castor Oil. Stock keepers should never be without this preparation, it is invaluable ill all kinds of ailments of cattle.
You have spent tens of billions of dollars on technologies designed to deal with several basic human needs during space travel – the need for food, water, and physical energy, as well as the need to maintain alertness and mental clarity. You have also discovered that zero gravity imposes serious physical penalties on Astronauts, including loss of bone mass.
In addition, having to carry food and water along on extended missions is a significant financial cost – every pound of food and water launched for the earth-orbiting Space Shuttle costs around $10,000 – for a trip to the moon or Mars the net costs of provisioning food and water for the mission would increase significantly. If chewing few grams of Coca Leaf a day could cut hundreds of pounds off of the food and water requirements of Astronauts by increasing their metabolic efficiency, not by starving or dehydrating them, and could also in the process enhance their performance and well-being – what is the downside?
We know that NASA uses a large number of pharmaceuticals designed by Pig Pharma and sold to the space program as supposedly effective treatments for the health risks faced by Astronauts – and we know for a fact that these very expensive drugs are at best limited in their effectiveness, and that their use carries serious risks. Why would NASA not even consider the potential benefits of chewing Coca Leaf as a natural and effective replacement for some of these potentially dangerous and largely ineffective “medicines? Why would NASA not “do the math” and refer to the voluminous scientific and medical data from the 1800’s that makes it clear that Coca Leaf alone could make a huge contribution to Astronaut success and well-being during extended space exploration? The only possible reason is a combination of ignorance and politics – always lethal.
So, NASA, why don’t you at least consider the potential benefits to both Astronauts and to the Space Budget of including a couple of pounds of fresh Coca Leaf with every mission into space. Even a cursory glance at the scientific and medical literature of the 1800’s would show you that there is incontrovertible evidence that chewing small amounts of Coca Leaf decreases the need for food and water while maintaining high levels of physical and mental energy. It also enables much more efficient use of oxygen – a critical point in space travel. Imagine the impact on Astronauts working outside the spacecraft in a space suit with a limited oxygen supply if their efficiency in the use of available oxygen could be increased by 10%.
Coca Leaf also has very positive effects on metabolism, digestion, blood circulation, eyesight, heart muscle condition and – who knows – maybe even bone mass loss, although that was never mentioned in the literature from the 1800’s, probably because it was an unknown condition. However, Coca Leaf poultices were used with salutary effect as a treatment for broken bones, so who knows – it would not be a difficult thing to investigate.
In the 1800s the crews of sailing ships faced many dangers quite similar to those faced by today’s Astronauts. Imagine, for example, the array of dilemmas that faced shipwrecked sailors, cast ashore without tools, provisions, food or water in circumstances where these essentials might be available in only limited supply. In a world without communications they would be cut off from all hope of rescue until, by chance, a ship happened to come close enough to spot them, and then of course – how are they going to signal that ship? Build a signal fire, of course. But with what?
Physicians of those days knew the dangers faced by sailors and those who also knew the benefits of Coca Leaf saw the connection clearly.
(from) Erythroxylon Coca: By W.S. Searle, MD 1881
“From what has been said of the nature and effects of Coca it will be seen that I do not regard this plant in the light of a drug, any more, at least, than coffee, tea, or tobacco can be so termed. Nor, indeed, is it as susceptible of application as a drug as those substances even; since its effects upon the body are marked by much less disturbance than those of any of them. To be of value as a drug, a substance must have pathogenetic power. It is, then, not as a drug that we should regard Coca, though its sphere in medical practice is destined to be a very wide, and an immensely important one. Its place is that of a food, or, if you please, supplemental or adjunct to food. Its economic uses in the community will be of a high grade, and its employment in the army, navy, and merchant marine will be still higher. It will sustain the life of many an exhausted soldier and ship-wrecked sailor. Had our army at Gettysburg been supplied with it, Lee and his troops need never have been allowed to re-cross the Potomac. A bale of it should form part of the supply of every ship, since, in case of shipwreck, it would sustain life much longer than a corresponding amount of food.”
Dr. Searles was mirroring the findings of Dr. Benjamin Gibbs, M.D. (Surgeon U. S. N.) in his “Report on Coca; Sanitary and Medical Report” written for the U. S. Navy and published in Washington, DC in 1875. In his report, Dr. Gibbs recommended to the Navy and to Congress that every military force from every branch should have a substantial supply of Coca Leaf available for use by soldiers and sailors in the event of stress, fatigue, injury, prolonged combat, long sea voyages, loss of food or water rations, and instances of shipwreck or siege.
Oh, and NASA, if you are thinking that addicted Astronauts might be a publicity nightmare, well, that’s not a problem as long as you do your homework. That same 19th Century scientific and medical literature makes it crystal clear – to coin a phrase – that there is not the slightest chance of addiction in a person who chews moderate amounts of fresh Coca Leaf daily. You should be able to verify this with a few simple trials.
So NASA – considering the potential benefits of Coca leaf in space travel, are you able to think outside the box enough to give this proposal serious consideration? It certainly wouldn’t be difficult to investigate, and I’m sure that the Government of Peru would be happy to supply you with all the fresh, top quality Coca Leaf you needed through their official Coca Leaf products organization Enaco.
And while we’re at it NASA, do you still adhere to this statement by your former Administrator?
“NASA has always been, is, and will continue to be committed to open scientific and technical inquiry and dialogue with the public.”
“Statement On Scientific Openness” by
NASA Administrator Michael Griffin 2006
Editor’s Note: Many readers of this blog will already be familiar with the atrocities committed by the Spanish during their conquest of Mexico. The collusion of the Catholic Church in these atrocities is also well-documented, as is the barbaric behavior of both the Conquistadors and the Priests toward the conquered Mexicans. Anyone not fully familiar with this part of the story of how the cockroaches of Europe spread their diseased minds and greedy doctrines throughout the “New World” can do no better than to read “The Journals Of Bernal Diaz”, whose chronicles of the Cortez conquest of Mexico are among the few reasonably accurate descriptions we have from that awful period. Click here for Volume #1, and Click here for Volume #2
However, as grossly cruel and barbaric as the Spanish conquest of Mexico undoubtedly was, and as complicit as the Catholic Church and its corrupt priesthood was in the slaughter and exploitation, the suffering inflicted upon Mexico was nothing compared with that inflicted on Peru, and the diseased and evil soul of the Priesthood displayed in Mexico was multiplied many times over with the Inca in Peru. Whereas in Mexico the priests of the Church followed behind the Conquistadors and exploited the chaos that they created, in Peru the priesthood initiated and energetically led the bloodshed and exploitation. The Conquistadors themselves were the original “Gang Who Couldn’t Shoot Straight”, evil little clowns and drunkards pretending to be soldiers. In a long and shameful history, the satanic behavior and deliberately genocidal policies of the Church in Peru mark a disgusting low point in the annals of this criminal institution whose impact has persisted to this day.
The following relatively brief excerpts from Dr. Mortimer’s 1901 “History Of Coca” will, I hope, whet the appetite of readers of this blog to pursue the story by going to the dozens of original source materials that are hyperlinked in the bibliography that is offered in “The Coca leaf Papers”. Within these original source materials you’ll find historically accurate and detailed accounts of the generations-long exploitation of the indigenous people of the Andes, which continues to a large extent even today through a feudal land-ownership and class system that has given rise, in recent times, to revolutionary movements such as El Sendaro Luminoso – The Shining Path. The fact that this revolutionary movement, like all others in Latin America, has been compromised and undercut by the Great Satan to the North through the use of mercenaries and paid assassins should not and does not take away from its historical legitimacy as a protest against exploitation and cruelty.
What follows is a brief description of the origins of the centuries of the suffering that continues to this day, and that drives the bravest among the indigenous peoples of the Andes to continue to resist by all means possible the evil and corruption that was brought to their lands so many centuries ago.
This Post Excerpted from “The History of Coca”, Chapter Three, by Dr. William Mortimer, MD (1901)
We Come In Peace
In November, 1532, hearing that Atahualpa, with his army, was in the neighboring mountains, Pizarro crossed the desert of Sechura, and a sort of triumphal march was continued toward the interior directly to the Inca’s camp. As his troops passed on, the natives were baptized into the church, and assumed solemn vows which they could not understand, but it was sufficient that they had accepted the faith. Atahualpa learning of Pizarro’s approach – presumably supposed that so small a body could only be coming upon friendly terms – so sent a messenger with greetings to inform him that the Inca would on the following day visit him in person. In the meantime the freedom of Caxamarca was extended to the invaders, and the use of the public buildings was offered for the troops.
Pizarro concealed his forces while awaiting the sovereign, who was borne in great state upon the royal litter, was clothed in Incan splendor, a chuspa of Coca hung at his side, golden sandals were upon his feet, and his head bore the stately insignia of power – the llauta and borla of scarlet fringe, with the royal feathers of the sacred bird. He was accompanied by a numerous retinue of nobles of his court and thousands of followers.
Friar Vicente de Valverde, the ecclesiastical head of the Spaniards, acted as spokesman, and explained through his interpreters that their little band had visited this far-off land for the sake of establishing the true religion and converting the natives. He beseeched the Inca to at once acknowledge the faith and allegiance to the king, Charles the Fifth. Authority for all this he attempted to show in a Bible which he offered to Atahualpa, but the latter, saying he recognized no other king than himself, indignantly threw the book to the ground, which the vengeful friar seemed to recognize as an affront sufficient to provoke hostilities, for he shouted, “Fall on! I absolve you”, when at once the most terrible onslaught upon the unsuspecting Incas was commenced. The Spanish officers being mounted, were enabled to do some frightful work, while the troops, armed with death-dealing arquebuses, literally vomited fire upon the natives, who were massacred by thousands, while not one of the invading party was injured save Pizarro, who received a slight wound from his own men while shielding the Inca, who was taken prisoner. The monarch was at first treated with courtesy, and permitted to retain his people about him. Pizarro, ever awake to some politic move, hinted upon the advisability of adjusting the affairs of the brothers amicably, but the imprisoned chief, not realizing his own danger, became alarmed at such a suggestion, and secretly dispatched orders to assassinate Huascar, who was then a prisoner in Atahualpa’s army. Nor had his brother received very courteous treatment at the hands of the rival forces, for they put a rope around his neck and called him Coca hachu – Coca chewer – besides offering him many other affronts, while they gave him Chillea – Bacchaus scandeus – leaves to eat instead of Coca. This so outraged Huascar that he raised his eyes to heaven and cried: “O Lord and Creator, how is it possible ? Why hast thou sent me these burdens and troubles?”
In The Name Of The “True Religion”, The Spanish Slaughter The Welcoming Inca Royalty
Now commenced the downfall of the Empire of the Incas. Atahualpa, chafing under restraint, suggested paying for his ransom with as much gold as the room in which he was imprisoned would hold; and as that space was seventeen feet broad by twenty-two feet long, and was to be filled to a height of nine feet, the Spaniards were only too ready to agree to his proposition. But even their most sordid expectations had not pictured the vast store of riches which, at the command of the Inca, was at once brought to them from all sections of the country. It literally poured in a golden stream of vases, vessels, utensils, ornaments, the golden Coca shrubs from the temples, immense plaques, and golden animals, and statues of life-size, and in nuggets and golden dust. All this did not seem enough to satisfy the greed of the conqueror. Instead of freeing Atahualpa, who had shown too keen a wit to be permitted at liberty, it was decided to make away with him. He was charged with the murder of his brother, and after a hasty trial was condemned to death. In August, 1533, after receiving the last rites of the Church, he was executed in the square of Caxamarca by the garrote, as a distinctive torture to being burned alive in consideration for his having at the last moment submitted to baptism. The following day, amidst the most impressive solemnity, the service for the dead being performed by Father Valverde, the body of the Incan sovereign was buried, Pizarro and his principal cavaliers assuming mourning as hypocritical emblems of their grief at the loss of this mighty lord. The greatest lawlessness now commenced, and booty was free among the Spaniards. Villages were destroyed, houses were ransacked, and the gorgeous temples and palaces were plundered.
Pizarro advanced rapidly to Cuzco, but little of its golden splendor was now left. The cupidity of the invaders had over-leaped itself, for as the Peruvians saw that the sole desire of the Spanish was for gold, they secreted the beautifully wrought golden emblems of Coca and other elaborate workings of the precious metal, together with the sacred vessels and the venerated bodies of the Incas which had been set up in the Temple of the Sun. From that day to this these treasures have never been fully recovered, although some years later Polo Ondegardo, while Corregidor of Cuzco, found five mummies in a tomb in the mountains, three of them men and two women. These were said to be the bodies of the Incas Viracocha, Tupac Inca Yupanqui, and Huaynia Ccapac, together with Mama Runtu, the queen of the first named, and Ccoya Mama Ocllo, mother of the last. Each of the bodies was well preserved, even the hair with the eyebrows and lashes remaining, while the peculiar wrappings and the sacred llauta about the forehead, betokened their rank. These bodies were conveyed to Lima, where they were buried with appropriate rites in the courtyard of the hospital of San Andres.
Pearls Cast Among Swine
When the first vast treasure of capture was divided among the officers and followers of the conquerors, each of the invaders was allotted a fortune, and Hernando Pizarro was dispatched to Spain with the royal fifth. The amount taken to the Crown proved sufficient to establish this new country in the name of the king, who magnanimously divided it into New Castile in the north, which was assigned to Pizarro, and New Toledo south of that, which was given to the control of Almagro. So bloated were the Spaniards with their newly acquired riches that the most ordinary commodities were paid for in fabulous sums, and many anecdotes are related of this prodigality of wealth. The men fell into riotous living, spent their days in lawlessness and their nights in gambling, the stakes at these bouts often being for whole fortunes. In one of these orgies the massive emblem of the Sun, taken from the Temple at Cuzco, was staked and lost at a single throw by the cavalier to whom it had fallen in the division of the spoils, from which an after allusion of arrant profligacy was referred to as: “He gambles away the sun in a night.”
It is recorded that when Atahualpa was imprisoned one of the priests wrote the name of God at his request upon the Inca’s finger nail. This he showed to several of the guards, who, upon their pronouncing the name correctly, it excited his admiration and astonishment that characters so unintelligible to him could be read by the Spaniards. On showing the name to Pizarro – who could neither read nor write – he remained silent, and by thus displaying his ignorance provoked a contempt which his prisoner could not well conceal. It has been asserted that it was through pique at this incident that determined an approval to the Inca’s death.
The Empire of the Incas being now without a chief, fell into confusion, and the governors of the several provinces each set up an independence, which Pizarro was quick to appreciate would be more difficult to overthrow than to conquer the country under one revered ruler whom he might influence through stratagem. He therefore determined to install Manco, the legitimate brother of Huascar, who had already placed himself under his protection, and he was established as the successor and sovereign Inca amidst all the ancient splendor and formality that such an occasion might demand. So much harmony had been occasioned by this shrewd course that it now seemed as though the whole country might proclaim allegiance to Pizarro’s guardianship, but the avarice of the invaders had not yet been appeased by the gold they had received. Their persistent search for treasure, which did not respect even the sacred buildings and palaces, proved to the Indians the new religion was not one of peace, but rather suggested they were to be reduced from their former freedom and happy state to become the mere slaves of a body of tyrants. A succession of internal wars now commenced, and the Incas, led by Manco, took a final stand at Cuzco, which they battled so nobly to defend that for a time it seemed the Spaniards must be routed, but the ultimate result was the complete overthrow of the Incan Empire, and Manco, chagrined and humiliated by his defeat, escaped to the mountains near Vilcabamba, where he maintained a sort of regal independence with a few loyal followers, until his death in 1544. After the overthrow of Cuzco, Pizarro, desiring a location near the coast in easier communication with Panama, established the seat of his government on the river Rimac, and the new capital was named Ciudad de Los Reyes – City of the Kings – in honor of the sovereigns of Spain, the modern name, Lima, being a corruption of Rimac.
And here the conqueror, enthroned in power, took to him Añas, the daughter of Atahualpa, by whom he had a son – Francisco, who became a schoolmate of the Incan historian, Garcilasso de la Vega, but died young in Spain. As though to unite his name more profoundly with the Incan race, Pizarro took also the sister of Huascar, who bore him two children, a son, who died young, and a daughter, Francisca, who in after years married his brother, Hernando, in Spain. As if by marriage and intermarriage the invaders might atone for the destruction of a mighty race.
For a complete historical narrative of this disgraceful period in the European conquest of the “New World” please see “The Coca Leaf Papers“.
One of the friends of this blog has an illness that this person, out of a personal sense of privacy and reserve, doesn’t ever identify in her blog, but which I have reason to believe is Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). After reading the Twitter feed from one of her recent messages I discovered that a lot of her interactions were with bloggers who had this terrible condition, which I was not previously aware of. (Twitter is such a gossip!) I will respect her privacy completely, but after reading about this disease I am moved to make this post.
Reading the commentary on ME/CFS set me thinking how many times in the Coca Leaf source literature from the 18th-19th centuries the beneficial effects of Coca Leaf on fatigue is mentioned. Not just in terms of Incas being able to carry heavy loads over the Andes with little food or water, and not just in terms of re-invigorating people after strenuous exercise.
These source materials talk of the wide-ranging effects of Coca Leaf on blood, nervous system, muscle, digestion, and brain function – and this made me think. Why aren’t the multitudes of caring, dedicated scientists and physicians who are researching ME/CFS investigating the possibility the something as simple as Coca Leaf tea might – just possibly – make a difference for the people who, currently, have so little hope of successful treatment?
Of course the answer is – because Coca Leaf has been effectively excluded from consciousness by a calculated conspiracy extending over decades, and it would never enter the minds of even these dedicated healers to ever consider for a brief moment that Coca Leaf might hold at least a small key to amelioration of this terrible source of suffering and death.
If you, as I was, are unaware of the scope of this problem there is a widely recommended Canadian document that you can read to inform yourself: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Clinical Case Definition and Guidelines for Medical Practitioners.
This is a disease that affects a huge number of people, according to this document: “Epidemiological studies indicate a wide range of prevalence. However, in a large American sample of more than 28,000 adults, 422 per 100,000 had ME/CFS, suggesting that between 125,000 and 150,000 adult Canadians suffer from ME/CFS. (This also translates to 1,266,000 people in the US.) It is more prevalent than lung cancer and AIDS. This illness affects all age groups, including children, all racial/ethnic groups, and all socioeconomic strata. There is a higher prevalence in females.” I would challenge you to reflect on how many of the diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS, shown below, a disease that was unknown in the 18th and 19th centuries, are nevertheless remarkably similar to the conditions that physicians in those times treated successfully with simple Coca Leaf preparations. This isn’t to say that Coca Leaf is the answer here – but there are enough such ‘coincidences’ to surely merit investigation.
So, with that said, let me present just a small sampling of the findings of the physicians of the 18th-19th centuries regarding Coca Leaf and Fatigue – deadly fatigue in the case of ME/CFS. A search of my collection of these writings in “The Coca Leaf Papers” reveals hundreds of similar observations.
Coca Leaf & Healthy Blood Circulation
History Of Coca, Dr. Mortimer – Chapter 8