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Thoughts On Coca, Cannabis, Opium & Tobacco – Gifts Of The Great Spirit


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Forest Bathing Scientifically Validates The Cannabis Entourage Effect

Introduction

The extensively-studied phenomenon known as “Forest Bathing” in Japan and South Korea and as “Kneipp Therapy” in Germany involves exposure to high concentrations of naturally-occurring aerosolized phytochemicals in conifer & deciduous forests.

This natural treatment for conditions ranging from asthma to dermatitis has been documented and validated by a raft of high-quality medical and scientific research.

There is no question that “Forest Bathing” has therapeutic benefits. For example, positive effects on NK (Natural Killer) cell activity have been shown with in vitro treatment of tumor cell lines with monoterpenes released from trees (and of course present in Cannabis flowers) such as d-limonene and α-pinene, and also in forest bathing trips. The anti-tumor effects act by increasing intra-cellular levels of anti-tumor proteins such as perforin, granulysin, and granzymes A/B.

Haven’t heard of “Forest Bathing”? I hadn’t either until I ran across it during some intense research into naturally-occurring environmental Cannabis terpene aerosols. The ancient Japanese natural health practice called “Shinrin Yoku”, defined as “taking in the forest atmosphere” or “forest bathing”, has a wide range of rigorously tested and proven health benefits.

In 2005 the Japanese government introduced a nationwide “Therapeutic Effects of Forests Plan” that pays “Forest Bathing” health benefits. The government says that it pays for this therapy because of the proven reduction in other health care costs across the spectrum.

South Korean scientists and public health researchers have documented a wide range of positive health benefits from exposure to terpenes in the air of coniferous forests, with variations among the terpenes in different species of trees at different locations accounting for differences in the health benefits of inhalation of forest air.

They have divided the country into numerous micro-climes where particular combinations of coniferous tree species co-exist and perfume the air, each location offering a particular healing, stimulating mix of terpenes and other phytochemicals.

Interestingly, the dominant terpenes in the air of these forests are the same terpenes that characterize different Cannabis strains and the same kinds of variability in Cannabis strains similarly account for their differing health benefits.

There is also a natural medicinal therapy in Germany called “Kneipp Therapy”, that involves a series of exercise routines done in a terpene-rich forest environment. Kneipp Therapy has been studied using quality clinical research protocols and the exercises have been found to be significantly more beneficial when performed in a forest environment compared to other kinds of locations. 

So, it’s both very interesting and very significant for establishing the validity of the Cannabis “Entourage Effect” that the dominant terpene profiles of all of the therapeutic forests studied in the Japanese and Korean “Forest Bath” scientific literature (cited below) appear to be various combinations of myrcene, pinene, limonene, linelool, and a number of less-celebrated but still important Cannabis terpenes like cynene, terpinene and boneal. There are many other “minor” phytochemicals shared between the airborne perfumes of Cannabis flowers and therapeutic forests, and almost certainly many of these will ultimately be shown to play significant roles in both the Forest and the Cannabis “Entourage Effect”.

Bottom line – I believe that there is an inescapable argument in favor of the Cannabis “Entourage Effect” presented by the “Forest Entourage Effect”, which itself is definitively established in international, if not US, scientific and medical literature.

Discussion:

There has been extensive research in multiple advanced countries on the health benefits of exposure by inhalation and skin absorption to the airborne terpenes in forest environments – interestingly enough, these turn out to be the same terpenes that are inhaled in the vapors from Cannabis flowers.

“Forest Bathing” research establishes that inhaling a naturally-occurring mix of terpene emissions or vapors has far greater health benefits than exposure to or ingestion of any of the terpenes and other phytochemicals singularly, like in a pill or other oral or topical medication.

Cannabis visionaries have always known that the THC was only one element of the sensual pleasures and only one of the sources of health benefits from the sacred flower, just as wine lovers have always known that the alcohol is only a relatively small part of their total experience. Nobody drinks a bottle of Etude Pinot Noir or Chateau Pomerol Bordeaux for the alcohol, and nobody chooses which Cannabis flower to enjoy simply on the basis of THC content, although that approach seems to dominate much of today’s adolescent-style Cannabis marketing. Even the most dedicated couch-locked stoner knows very well that there is a world beyond THC and may spend a lot of time (if they’re not too ripped)  thinking about taste and aroma options when they’re choosing between Durban Poison and Granddaddy Purple.

However, the concept of a Cannabis “Entourage Effect” has been universally ridiculed by anti-Cannabis forces who say that the supposed variety of effects of different Cannabis strains is simply a kind of mass delusion.  They claim that there is no evidence that different phytochemical profiles of different Cannabis strains signal different health and well-being effects, and say that in their expert, informed scientific opinion such observations are imaginary. While their criticisms are couched in the careful, apparently rational language of science, and even rated a major article in Scientific American in 2017, all of the criticisms amount to a simple “It’s all in your head” dismissal.

In other words, the anti-Cannabis establishment says tough, there’s no scientific evidence to support your claim, and there’s not going to be any evidence either because we aren’t going to fund research.

Well, I’ve got some news for these die-hard prohibitionists.

OK, they have managed to impede research that could validate many of the medical benefits of the whole Cannabis Flower as opposed to plain old THC extract. With notable medical research exceptions, many of the health and sensual benefits ascribed to the Cannabis Flower are currently only validated by experience and consensus, both of which the scientists are fond of reminding us can be way off target. They point to the flat earth delusion, or to many other instances where “everybody knows” something that simply isn’t true, and smugly point out that nobody can prove all these marvelous things we’re saying about Cannabis.

It’s hard to find a reasonable explanation of why the Federal government has arrayed its dark-side powers against the Cannabis flower, but in this match between the Flower and the Power it’s beginning to look like the Power is going to lose this one because Forest Bathing research actually provides plenty of evidence . The research unequivocally supports the validity of the “Entourage Effect” by demonstrating that naturally-occurring environmental terpene and phytochemical aerosols do have measurable, verifiable positive impacts on overall health as well as on specific diseases and conditions, and do vary among forest tree species and environments in the same ways that Cannabis flowers vary among strains in response to environmental variables.

Forest Bathing research is directly applicable to validating the “Entourage Effect” of Cannabis terpenes and phytochemicals that are widely observed but, according to the Federal propagandists,  not “scientifically verified”. As an example, there is solid research that says that terpene emissions from plants are directly correlated with the concentration of terpenes in the plant. The higher the concentration of terpenes, the greater the emissions from the plant. “Forest Bathing” research naturally focuses on terpene emissions from coniferous and to a lesser degree deciduous trees, but the relationship between terpene concentrations and emission rates has been widely replicated in studies with agricultural crops and seems to apply to all plants.

The bottom line is that clinical literature as well as popular wisdom in several countries points to the health benefits of inhaling and “bathing in” an atmosphere rich in terpenes and other phytochemicals. While the health benefits of many of the individual components of this phyto-soup are only recently becoming well-known, the benefits of exposure to the entire environmental complex of a pine/conifer forest are familiar to anyone who has ever walked outdoors that first morning in a forest campground.

A recent study concluded: “Exposure to natural environment is beneficial to human health. Among environmental exposures, the effects of forest have been emphasized in many studies. Recently, it has been shown that a short trip to forest environments has therapeutic effects in children with asthma and atopic dermatitis. Based on these studies, healthcare programs to use forest have been developed in several countries. Forest bathing has beneficial effects on human health via showering of forest aerosols. Terpenes that consist of multiple isoprene units are the largest class of organic compounds produced by various plants, and one of the major components of forest aerosols. Traditionally, terpene-containing plant oil has been used to treat various diseases without knowing the exact functions or the mechanisms of action of the individual bioactive compounds.”

So, it’s clear that relaxing for a few hours in a forest environment filled with terpenes can be beneficial and even therapeutic for people with a wide range of diseases and conditions from dermatitis to cancer. Do a simple internet search for “forest bathing’ and you’ll find books, resorts, videos and even classes. But enter “cannabis bathing” into a search and you’ll get bath salts, bubble bath, and a lot of fruit-flavored massage and lubricating oils.

For the past year or so I have been exclusively using a vaporizer to enjoy Cannabis flowers and I can add my experiences to the observations of many others that whole flower Cannabis vapor is a marvelous clean, natural high which, now that I realize it, is almost exactly like stepping out of my tent high in the pine forests of the Oregon Cascades and inhaling that first breath of vibrant, aromatic, high-energy mountain air.

So in my opinion all this research on “Forest Bathing” makes the smug “You can’t prove it and we’re not going to let you” chant of the anti-Cannabis “scientists” pretty much irrelevant. Sooner or later there will actually be research on every aspect of inhaled and absorbed Cannabis terpenes and other phytochemicals but until then the parallel research on Forest Bathing should be more than adequate scientific evidence for any reasonable person of the validity of the Cannabis “Entourage Effect”.

Selected Bibliography

Frumkin H. Beyond toxicity: human health and the natural environment. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20:234–240. doi: 10.1016/S0749-3797(00)00317-2. [PubMed]

Tsunetsugu Y, Park BJ, Miyazaki Y. Trends in research related to “Shinrin-yoku” (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing) in Japan. Environ Health Prev Med. 2010;15:27–37. doi: 10.1007/s12199-009-0091-z. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Seo SC, Park SJ, Park CW, Yoon WS, Choung JT, Yoo Y. Clinical and immunological effects of a forest trip in children with asthma and atopic dermatitis. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015;14:28–36. [PubMed]

Spievogel I, Spalek K. Medicinal plants used in pediatric prophylactic method of Sebastian Kneipp. Nat J. 2012;45:9–18.

Joos S, Rosemann T, Szecsenyi J, Hahn EG, Willich SN, Brinkhaus B. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in Germany: a survey of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006;6:19. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-6-19. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Kawakami, K., Kawamoto, M., Nomura, M., Otani, H., Nabika, T., & Gonda, T. (2004). Effects of phytoncides on blood pressure under restraint stress in SHRSP. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 31, S27–S28.

Li, Q., Kobayashi, M., Wakayama, Y., Inagaki, H., Katsumata, M., Hirata, Y., Hirata, K., Shimizu, T., Kawada, T., & Park, B. (2009). Effect of phytoncide from trees on human natural killer cell function. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 22, 951–959.

Li, Q. (2010). Effect of forest bathing trips on human immune function. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 15, 9–17.

Ormeño, E., Gentner, D. R., Fares, S., Karlik, J., Park, J. H., & Goldstein, A. H. (2010). Sesquiterpenoid emissions from agricultural crops: correlations to monoterpenoid emissions and leaf terpene content. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 3758–3764.

Park BJ, Tsunetsugu Y, Kasetani T, Kagawa T, Miyazaki Y. The physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing): evidence from field experiments in 24 forests across Japan. Environ Health Prev Med. 2010;15:18–26. doi: 10.1007/s12199-009-0086-9. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Song C, Ikei H, Miyazaki Y. Physiological effects of nature therapy: A review of the research in Japan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13:E781. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13080781. [PMC free article] [PubMed]


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Coca Leaf Health Spas In Mexico – Centros de Coca Curación

The recent ruling by the Mexico Supreme Court that opens the way to the legalization of recreational Marijuana in Mexico has also potentially opened the door to a powerful new economic resource for the country, which would piggyback on an already-existing medical tourism industry. With very little effort, Mexico could create a nationwide system of “Centros de Coca Curacion” and become the leading center for Coca Leaf therapy in the world.

Each year hundreds of thousands of North Americans and Europeans head to Mexico for everything from dental procedures to fertility treatment to intricate neurosurgery. They are comfortable doing so because for generations North Americans andbalenearios3 Europeans have experienced successful, inexpensive, highly competent medical treatment in Mexico. Medical treatment in Mexico is a known, fully accepted option. There are even a number of US health insurers who pay for medical treatment in Mexico such as BlueShield of California through its “Access Baja” health plan.

All that Mexico would have to do would be to legalize the possession and use of Coca Leaf and at least two potentially huge new medical industries would open up. Coca Leaf spas where people could go for relaxation and treatment, and Coca Leaf medications similar to those already being manufactured in Bolivia and Peru. Medical treatment at Coca Leaf spas would be closer, cheaper, and more familiar than having to fly to the southern Andes. Plus Mexico has a huge traditional community of healers as well as all varieties of contemporary medicine from allopathic to naturopathic MDs.

Freely available Coca Leaf medications in the form of teas, pastilles and – almost certainly – some version of Vin Mariani would soon make their way into the world market. This is already happening in Peru and Bolivia.

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There would be no need for the Mexican government to spend a single peso to accomplish this. Turn on the green light and Mexican entrepreneurs would jump on this opportunity immediately.

Mexico would not have to wait for Mexican farmers to get Coca plantations established – it would be a simple matter of the Mexican government allowing the regulated importation of fresh Coca Leaf from Bolivia while licensed & regulated Coca plantations were coming of age in the Mexican mountains. Since it takes several years to get a Coca plantation fully productive the imported leaf option would enable the Mexican Medical Coca Leaf industry to begin immediately, with existing health spas and clinics, and even straightforward tourism destinations, simply adding Coca Leaf treatment to their healing repertory.

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This activity wouldn’t interfere with the powerful cartels either. It would be relatively easy to control where the freshly harvested Coca Leaf wound up, and the cartels have no trouble getting all the Cocaine they want from Colombia anyway. Besides, there would probably be at least a few Cartel leaders smart enough to see the incredible opportunity in Coca Leaf spas, just as I am quite certain that the imminent legalization of Cannabis has quite a few Cartel leaders contemplating the potential of Medical Cannabis treatment centers.
balineiros

Mexico has no shortage of fantastically beautiful mountain and coastal locations for both kinds of spas – Coca Leaf and Cannabis – and could in a very short time become a global medical tourism destination. However, perhaps more important to the revival of rural Mexico’s economy, there are over a hundred natural hot springs that are not used much if at all by tourists and outsiders, known to the locals as “Balenearios”. You can find an extensive listing of Mexican Balenearios in a fine book by Mike Nelson entitled “Spas and Hot Springs of Mexico”.

While these locally-known resources are not usually set up for accommodating outside visitors, the simplicity of making Coca Leaf treatments available to visitors would mean that with very little effort – a few guest houses and a little restaurant or two – hundreds of struggling little towns throughout Mexico’s mountainous regions could transform themselves into destinations for the more adventurous health seekers who wanted to avoid the cloying atmosphere of upper-class health spas. Balenearios are primarily located in the states of Aquascalientes (duh), Guanajuato, Michoacan, Mexico, Morelos, Puebla, Queretaro, Hidalgo and San Luis Potosi, so medical travelers would have a wide range of choices.

This means that instead of having to travel to Peru or Bolivia for access to Coca Leaf for treating and curing everything from Alzheimer’s to Congestive Heart Failure, North Americans could travel easily and inexpensively to Mexico. And of course many Mexicans living in the US would be even more incentivized than non-Hispanics to make the journey for Coca Leaf treatment as an alternative to the broad range of diseases and conditions that are treatable and curable with this simple, powerful, natural medicine.

balenearios4

There is also other reasons why Mexico should consider making Coca Leaf legal immediately. It would bring new life to small towns that have local hot springs and possibly traditional healing centers in remote areas. In many cases it would give Mexicans living in the hostile environment of the US, working for slave wages, an opportunity to return home and earn a good living in their home town or village. Finally – and this is no small matter – it would give Mexicans an excellent opportunity to give the Estados Unidos a great big middle finger salute and a hearty “Hasta la vista, baby”.

Oh, and just because it would be the right thing to do, the Mexican government ought to pass laws ensuring that no US citizens who was or is a US Federal government employee in any of the agencies involved in narcotics law enforcement, could receive treatment in any licensed Mexican Medical Coca Leaf or Medical Cannabis spa. Decisions to profit from participation in evil should have consequences, after all.


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Coca Leaf – A Safe & Effective Treatment & Cure For Asthma?

This post offers direct-source information on how Coca Leaf medications – primarily simple teas and tonics – were applied to Asthma as well as a range of respiratory conditions and diseases in the 1800’s. The word “cure” is used a lot by these long-ago doctors in describing patient outcomes. That seems pretty straightforward, doesn’t it? Coca leaf tea evidently worked for Asthma in 1875. 

While readers may find some of the quoted remarks a bit quaint when viewed from our 21st century perspective of “advanced medicine”, nevertheless when you understand the core of what is being said by the doctors and patients quoted here I believe that you will agree that Coca leaf sounds like at least as effective a treatment for Asthma and respiratory disease as many if not most of the “advanced medicines” that the allopathic medical profession and its Big Pharma owners are so proud of.

When a well-meaning doctor recommends drugs like Novartis AG’s Foradil, GlaxoSmithKline’s Serevent and Advair, and AstraZeneca’s Symbicort – to name just a few of the contemporary ‘miracle drugs’ for Asthma – most people with asthma know that every one of Big Pharma’s asthma drugs have to be used with great care. Which means, in plain language, that under the wrong circumstances they can be dangerous and even fatal.

All the evidence from the doctors of the 1800’s who recorded their experience with the use of Coca Leaf teas and tonics for patients with Asthma and the range of respiratory diseases is that there were zero side-effects and thus zero danger. And Coca Leaf was effective in many if not all cases.

Now, to address the most likely objection to the idea of using Coca Leaf as an Asthma treatment – no, it is not Cocaine and no, it is not addictive or even habituating. Period. You can find extensive discussions of Coca’s non-addictive medicinal properties from original source materials in “The Coca Leaf Papers“.

Of course, before the use of Coca Leaf as an Asthma treatment could be widely adopted today it would have to be fully investigated using the highest research standards. However, given the longstanding opposition of most governments to natural medicines like Coca Leaf and Cannabis it seems unlikely that any such research would be funded.

This leaves the medical establishments of the few countries in the world where Coca Leaf is legal to take the lead – fortunately both Peru and Bolivia have first class medical research institutions that could easily and quickly do the necessary research. Coca is already widely used as an asthma medicine in both Peru and Bolivia, but both countries are under heavy US-led political pressure to keep the lid on anything positive about Coca, so you don’t hear much in the way of current research – although it is gradually accumulating.

Whether they would be allowed to do so openly is another question altogether. Still, if this research were to be done, and the results were to be what can be fully expected based on the experience of doctors in the 1800’s, these countries could become a medical travel destination for Asthma sufferers from around the world. Treatment centers and even retirement villages high in the Andes with Coca tea at 10, 2 and 4 – might work out real well even as a permanent lifestyle. 

(Excerpt From) Chapter 15: The History of Coca
(by) Dr. William G. Mortimer 1901

Coca & The Control Of Coughing Disease

When the malarial-bone-racking accompaniment of influenza known as “la grippe” raged, Coca was found the most serviceable supporter of the organism during an attack. The use of a grog made from “Vin Mariani” and hot water taken at bed time was recommended abroad by Dr. H. Libermann, surgeon-in-chief of the French army, and in the United States by Dr. Cyrus Edson. Personally, I advocate in this affection quinine combined with phenacetine – three grains of each, repeated at intervals of two or three hours, with at the same time a tablespoonful to a wineglassful of the Coca wine already mentioned. Quinine has a very depressing influence upon many patients and is apt to check the flow of bile as well. Coca, on the other hand, is mildly laxative, and while furthering the action of the antifebrile remedies, it antagonizes the disease, buoys the patient and serves as a nutrient when food and even a milk dietary is distasteful. When the acute condition has passed the Coca wine, used less frequently, may wholly replace other medication, checking the fearful incidental despondency and toning up the patient to recovery.

Asthma is an exceedingly unfortunate affliction which may exhibit no local signs between the attacks. It is occasioned by a spasm of the minute tubes set up reflexively either by trouble in the upper air passages, or wholly from a nervous influence, and an attack is often precipitated by worry or some unusual nervous strain. The source of trouble is well prevented by the judicious use of Coca, not only acting beneficially upon the mucous membrane, but through a sedative influence upon nervous tissue and as a tonic support to the muscular system generally.

A cough may have its seat in the trachea, the explosive manifestation being an effort to clear the tract of some foreign body, which may be either simply the swollen mucous membrane or the excessive secretion from its congestion. The deeper such a trouble is carried along the respiratory tract the more serious it is, whether a bronchitis – affecting only the larger tubes, or a more profound catarrh of the smaller ones intimately associated with the air cells – capillary bronchitis – or a congestion of the air vesicles themselves, when their capacity is encroached upon by the products thrown out by inflammation, as in pneumonia. In phthisis so destructive is the prolonged consuming congestion that several of these air cells may be broken together and coalesce as one cavity.

An appropriate method of breathing, while absolutely necessary to the professional singer or speaker, is desirable to improve the organism generally. Commonly we are apt to breathe too shallow, and in such cases a sort of respiratory gymnastics is desirable. Such an exercise may best be taken standing, with the clothing loosed. The breath should now be drawn in slowly and the chest gradually expanded to its full capacity, the shoulders being raised to admit of every available space in the lungs being filled with air. After a short retention the breath may be permitted to escape slowly. Then, after a few ordinary respiratory movements, another enforced respiration should be taken, and so on during a period of ten minutes, the exercise being repeated two or three times each day. By such a method lungs of moderate capacity may be cultivated to breathe more deeply, and enabled to maintain a tone from twenty to thirty seconds. All sorts of devices have been designed to entertain the patient while bringing about this result, one of which is a little tube which is blown into. In doing this the lungs are emptied by an enforced expiration, which necessitates an increased inspiration.

This breathing exercise may well be done while counting mentally and uniformly so many seconds for an inspiration, so many while the breath is held, and so many counts during the period of expiration. While at commencement the respiratory cycle may not be prolonged to exceed ten or twelve seconds, after a short practice the time may be doubled. The rationale of all exercise is to make breathing deeper and so to purify the blood and tissues. It is, therefore, desirable that all exercise shall be taken where the air is comparatively pure. I commonly instruct my patients to accustom themselves to deep breathing during their out-of-door walks, selecting a given point up to which the inspiration is taken and an equally distant point up to which the breath is slowly let out. With such a guide there is often an incentive to perform the exercise properly. Professional singers well understand the importance of this quality of deep breathing and of the control of a supply of wind in the bellows – as in this instance we may term the accessory apparatus of the lungs – which may gradually be let out to excite the vocal bands to vibration, and some phenomenal renditions have been related of great capacity. The tenor Gunz is said to have been able to take sufficient air at one inspiration to sing all of Schumann’s “The Rose, the Lily,” and an Italian songstress is mentioned who could trill up and down the chromatic scale through two octaves with one breathe

Artists who appreciate the importance of a sound body in order to render desirable tones take especial care to carry out a line of general exercise which, while improving the physique, may be recreative. Following the idea that work, not idleness, is the more restful, a change of occupation is sought, and the same impulse which led Gladstone to tree chopping for his rest has prompted several prominent singers to stock farming. Professional singing is not the dreamy, idle life which the poetry of music suggests, but calls forth all the powers of a sound organism. Indeed, the exertion, and consequent exhaustion of both nerve and muscle, is greater than commonly supposed in all prolonged use of the voice, either in singing or speaking. Meyerbeer was termed a voice breaker as far back as 1837, since his day the task of such artists as sing the Wagnerian music is really phenomenal, and they deserve credit as noble examples of endurance quite as much as for their cultivated rendering of harmony. It is not unusual for singers to break down physically, so the professional singer’s care is constantly excited to the preservation of health. A story is related of a lady who went to Bayreuth to rehearse under Wagner the part of one of the flower girls in “Parsifal.” The great composer told her to sing the high note loud and take the next deep note, which immediately followed, from the chest. She replied: “Well, Meister, if I do, I will have no voice left in two years,” to which it is said Wagner replied: “Well, do you expect to sing any longer than that?”

From the particular strain put upon the vocal organs through prolonged periods there is a constant liability among those who use their voice in such a way, to “relaxed throat” and hoarseness, and this, with tonsillitis and sore throat, which may be prompted by either a climatic change or any personal indiscretion, is the bȇte noire of the professional singer and speaker. Perhaps greater prominence has been given Coca preparations for the treatment of such functional derangements of the throat and voice than its application to any other use. Years before cocaine came into general utility Dr. Charles Fauvel, of Paris, directed attention to the importance of Coca for laryngeal troubles, while its use was speedily advanced in England by Dr. Morell Mackenzie and in the United States by Dr. Louis Elsberg, the father of American laryngology. Both of these gentlemen were in the clinic of Fauvel, and their methods were soon adopted by a host of skillful workers. Among those quoted as having used Coca successfully in laryngeal troubles are Lennox Browne, Beverley Robinson, Jarvis, H. H. Curtis, E. Fletcher Ingals, Solis Cohen, Sajous, Bosworth, Rice, and a host of other prominent laryngologists. As has been shown, however, the effect of Coca is not in any sense merely a local one, but systemic, and its benefit is wholly dissimilar to that resulting from the topical application of cocaine, for Coca not only acts as a purifier of the blood, but through this influence as a nerve and muscle tonic. This is exhibited through the empirical use of Coca long resorted to in mountain climbing.

Coca Leaf & Acute Disease
(Excerpt From) “An Essay On Erythrolylon Coca” (in) “A New Form Of Nervous Disease” By W.S. Searle, M.D. (1881)

The relations of Coca to acute disease are extremely important. As a physician, I would not be without it under any consideration. How thoroughly will every physician understand me when I say that we are not seldom compelled to stand by and witness the death of patients who are really better of the disease which destroys them than perhaps at any previous time during their sickness. We are unable to support them, and they die from exhaustion of the vital forces. Stimulants, often, will not serve, as they quicken the pulse and increase inflammation. Even when this cannot be charged against them, they are injurious in ways which I cannot now stop to discuss. The appetite is gone, in these cases to which I refer, and food, if taken, is of little or no service. But in Coca we have a powerful agent, whose disturbing influence over physiological processes is so little felt that it neither interferes with recovery from disease by natural course, nor with the action of remedies. And its sustaining power is so marvelous, that I prophesy that by its help we shall hereafter be able to cure many cases of disease which were otherwise hopeless.

I will narrate but one case in illustration of what I mean:

A delicate man of about sixty years, who had once had pneumonia, and who for a year had suffered from severe catarrh and catarrhal bronchitis, was struck on the chest by the pole of a truck, in Broadway, with great violence. He was attacked at once with slight haemoptysis. On the next day he had fever, but would have no physician. Not until he had been sick for six days would he permit me to be summoned. I then found him with pneumonia of the left lung, rusty sputa, a dry, brown tongue, a pulse of 112, a temperature of 102o, no sleep for seventy-two hours, constant typhoid delirium, and persistent hiccough. A more hopeless case it has seldom been my lot to attempt to cure. I administered the remedies which appeared to me to be indicated, and ordered a teaspoonful of the fluid extract of Coca, mixed in a teacup of milk and water for nourishment. Of this he took about three cupfuls daily. Four days and a half later his condition was as follows: Temperature normal: tongue clean and moist: lung resolved: cough very slight, with thin, white expectoration: appetite good, sleep good, delirium gone, hiccough vanished, and, what was more remarkable to me than any thing else, his pulse, which on the day I first saw him was thready and feeble at 112, was now 72, and full and soft and regular; in short, as good a pulse as I ever felt in a man of his years.

Now this result may have been post hoc and not propter hoc, but after nearly a quarter of a century of experience, it is my deliberate opinion that no doctor, short of the Great Physician himself, could have achieved such a result within the above-named time without the aid of Coca.

I could multiply such examples, but ex uno disce omnes.

I am informed by my colleague, Dr. John L. Moffat, of Brooklyn, that he has had very encouraging results from the use of Coca in hay fever in four instances. Of course, its action here is antipathic, or rather, it probably acts simply by its sustaining power, and by its antipathic relations to asthma. But even an efficient palliative, which can do no harm, will be welcomed by those who are annually visited by this plague.

(From) “English Mechanic”, August 18th, 1876; “Coca Leaf Tea”

“The best and most effective way of taking this I found to be in infusion, made by pouring half a pint of boiling water on 2 scruples to a drachm of the leaves, and then putting it in the side oven to “brew,” filling up again to compensate for evaporation. Half of this taken warm at bedtime, and the remainder cold next morning, I found sufficient to give me all the vital energy I required to go through some very heavy and exhausting work before dinner, and then through the remainder of the day’s occupation with almost unimpaired energy. I did this work on Saturday, July 15, exposed to the sun, with the temperature in the shade at 93 degrees. I perspired pretty freely, of course, but much less than at considerably lower temperatures without the coca. I had no after lassitude or exhaustion whatever, nor did I feel any all the time I have been experimenting with it, and it has been through all this torrid weather.”

“Contrary to the expectation, I found it no substitute for food, the appetite being very vigorous. There was, however, none of the nausea and “sinking” usually experienced with hunger, and the appetite was more easily satisfied. Both digestion and assimilation seemed, also to be perfect. I continued the experiment daily, with the good effects of feeling entirely free from any lassitude or weakness from the extreme heat which has prevailed, and with a keen relish for, and enjoyment of, every meal. But the greatest benefit I experienced has been in extremis, the excessive perspiration of the feet being so mollified and subdued (without suppression), that the rawness and irritation was almost entirely absent, whilst the step was as buoyant and careless as could be desired.”

“Knowing pretty well the action of most of our stimulants and invigorators, I have closely watched for the appearance of any reactionary or prejudicial after-effects, but I have failed to observe any. I discontinued its use, then, for one week, to see if any of the usual depression followed; but I merely missed the previous high vigour and lightness, which was restored next day by the first “potion.” As to its action, it is not narcotic, as the sleep induced was immediate, calm, unbroken, and refreshing. It is not astringent (or congestive), as all the mucous surfaces were moist and supple, and the trifling lingering remnants of a winter’s asthma and bronchitis came up without cough or other forcible effort, without any “tightness” or difficulty of breathing.”

“As to its excellent effects, I chewed the leaves on first going off, which was followed by the appearance of several small ulcers on the tongue and mouth, and inside the cheek, which I was not surprised at, as I had only just got rid of a relaxation of the uvula and neighboring inflammation of three weeks’ continuance. Several small boils also appeared about the temples and neck. Its further use in infusion was accompanied at first with some little irritation of the skin, and the appearance of what are commonly termed “heat-bumps,” both of which however, soon disappeared.”

“I am more particular in alluding to this expellent action, because there are few of the tissues or organs of the body that are not more or less charged with the effete or worn-out matter of “combustion,” and it is these accumulations which are acted upon most powerfully by any increase or excess of vital energy, causing chemical changes and appearances which are the “forms” of disease; such appearances are well- known phenomena of the water-cure, and are hailed as the best prognostics of its efficacy and healthful action. In my own experiment I do not think there was much material for external expulsion, as an eight months’ more or less persistence of bronchitis and asthma had pretty well cleared out what effete matter I could have accumulated. I have had, however, another opportunity of testing the therapeutic action this week. Being at Hastings on Sunday, I had walked and climbed over the cliffs and glens to Fairlight and back, and was met on the last cliff on my return by a well-meaning but injudicious friend who persisted in “button-holing” me. In vain I urged upon him that I was wet through with perspiration, and that the strong keen wind on the exposed cliff was chilling me to the bone.”

“At last I broke away, but not before I had received enough mischief to produce by Tuesday a severe catarrh, sore throat, and incipient bronchitis. I at once used the chlorate of potass in a gargle to arrest the congestion, and turned to the coca. This has restored the vital force, and, moving the fluid circulation back to the skin, I am now, on Friday, again sound in wind and limb. Had the coca being a narcotic or an alterative of an astringent nature, I should have been left with more or less dryness of the throat, cough, and ” tightness ” of the chest, of which not the slightest traces are apparent. I should thus esteem it a very valuable remedy for diseases of the throat or lungs, and more especially for consumption, wherein I have used remedies of an analogous nature and action with the best effects.”