Thoughts On Coca, Cannabis, Opium & Tobacco – Gifts Of The Great Spirit

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The Physiological Action Of Opium

(From) “Opium And The Opium Appetite”, by Alonzo Calkins, MD (1870)

Chapter VI: The Physiological Action Of Opium

“Impia sub dulci melle venena latent.” – Catullus.

“A dance of spirits, a mere froth of joy, That mantling high, now sparkles, now expires, Leaving the soul more vapid than before.” – Young.

Opium exerts its stimulative action in a twofold direction; upon the body, and upon the mind. The earliest ab-interiori impression is an indisposition to locomotion and an inaptitude to exertion every way. Muscular play, whatever there is of it, seems fortuitous rather than determinative, the lower propensities abate their intensive force and settle into torpidity, and the physical state is that of an automatic inertia. The will too, “that power triumphant where it dares,” lapses into a careless quiescence, the dormancy of reverie.

The transformations wrought upon the intellectual sense and the emotional susceptibilities during the opium-paroxysm partake indeed of the marvellous. The volitional faculty, that primum-mobile of the intellectual man, having shrunk into a mere passivity, judgment the balance wheel, now swayed this way and that in the conflict between the centripetal and centrifugal forces reason and imagination, is jolted. Opium, from its pivot-poise, and the soul now disenthralled from terrene clogs is wafted away upon fancy’s exultant pennons as by an electric rebound.

“Winging its flight from star to star, from world to luminous world, as far as the universe spreads its flaming wall,” to traverse if it may find some empyrean of a more ethereal and enrapturing entrancement than dull earth affords. The vision is as of some fairy mirage, without the tantalizing sense of vacuity, without the vapid disrelish arising from satiety.

Illustrative of this spiritual metamorphosis is the recorded experience of the hospital patient Mr. B.:

“Opium intensifies all the capacities for thought, with all the emotional capabilities; lifting the man to a higher plane of existence, where he may enjoy in panoramic perspective as it were, illusions no longer negations in seeming but veritable realities rather. The votary has now become a child in sensibility, a youth full-grown in vividness and splendor of conception, a more than man in copiousness of ideas and grasp of thought.”

The emotional developments are as novel and incongruous as are the proper conceptual creations. Querulousness and irascibility, though native to the man, recede for a space and give transient place to an amiable self-complacency, a self-satisfied disposition that would maintain accord with everybody and everything. Flashy wit in turgid declamation (the “rauca garrulitas”) here breaks out, to expire perchance even in the very utterance.

Another scenic “Paradise of Fools” has opened to the view; yet through all these transitional stages of rhapsodic exaltations and ephemeral inanities, the sense of personal identity is at no stage altogether effaced.

A few hours at the longest having lapsed, sleep begins. This may for a brief space be profound and death-like, a “consanguineus leti sopor,” as indicated by stertor and a dropping of the nether jaw, or it may be unquiet and fugitive at best, a hurried slumbering merely. The pattamaras (letter-carriers) on their journeys from Lahore, having reached their halting-stations, drop at once into a slumber which is profound only in the appearance; woe to the wayfarer who carelessly disturbs them! Not like the sleep on whose inventor the Governor of Barataria so piously invokes a blessing is this opium sleep, but rather a fitful yet oppressive somnolence, that leaves behind an aching brain, a fevered throat, and a languor and depression paralyzing to the whole body.

In sleep (but not with all) comes the dream. This, as if through some, spontaneity of working, takes shape and coloring less or more from the occupations and the musings of the day just gone, when, however, the “ruling passion,” under all diversities “Simulacra lacessunt Haec eadem animos nostros, quae cum vigilamus.” – Lucretius, of temperament or bias, is sure to come uppermost. The gamester is shuffling his cards once more, the stump orator boils over in vociferous harangue, the miser gloats again over his coffered hivings, the gourmand renews the feast at tables laden with appetizing viands, the castle-builder awakes to raptures anew, in a “chateau d’Espagne” his fancy has reared and decorated, the enthusiast devotee bending before Superstition’s shrine, hails in rapturous ejaculation the paradise o£ his dream where hope shall be exhausted in fruition.

Here too, libertinage finds its congenial atmosphere, but in enjoyments “linguae reticenda modestae,” for “Les sensations d’un tel reveur sur l’appareil genitale sont non-seulement voluptueuses, mais en rapport avec les tendences habituelles” (Libermann).

Such in its “best estate” is the virginal paroxysm of the opium-dreamer; a spasmodic ecstasy, an illusory enchantment, which in the recurrence becomes toned down to what has been termed a “static equilibrium, that can never be transcended again by any effort or device”.

The Bazaars and shops present a various and altogether a very repulsive picture. In a company some may be absorbed in their reveries and incognizant of the scenes around them; others grow mirthful and loquacious, breaking out into cachinnations the most absurd, and all because they cannot help it; others again, with pallid face and shrunken lips, are earnestly waiting in expectation of that excitement that shall dispel care and melancholy, and make them for a season oblivious of themselves.

Fatuity bordering on idiocy is the prominent feature around. Madden, on making acquaintance with the theriakis, remarked the glassy lustre and the incessant agitation of their eyes, the flushy hue of face, the swaying to and fro of the body in its unsteadiness, the ridiculous incoherency of their talk, and the extravagance of their maladroit gesticulations.

In the New Court, London, the camp-ground of a colony of foreigners, Chinese, Bengalese, Greeks, and others, is one of these opium dens under the direction of Ya-Hi, a man eighty-years old and himself an inveterate smoker, who makes the ordering of the nightly entertainment. Here in a close room styled “the Divan” the air of which is enough to stifle a stranger, may be seen numerous visitors arranged squat around the tea trays upon which their pipe-bowls rest, now indulging in vapid twaddle, now relapsing into idiotic mutterings, with the accompaniment of a motion of the lower jaw, sheep-fashion, or all may be quiet for the time, ready to break into mirthful extravagance at any instant – and for any or no cause. These people confess their willingness to work all day for procuring the furtive but fugitive enjoyment this receptacle holds out for the night.

Certain amateur explorers in the mines of experiment – all of course having specially in view “the general weal,” have recorded their sensations from making trial of opium.

Dr. Madden then sojourning at Constantinople visited the Theriaki Tchartchiffi or Grand Bazaar – the Lunatic Asylum, by some singular conjunction, stands fronting directly opposite – partly with the view of taking notes, but as much for making trial of the course, secundum artem, in his own person. After swallowing in succession several lozenges to the amount of 4 grains in all, he began to have an unwonted feeling of self-expansion corporeally, while at the same time things as seen in vision appeared in an exaggerated amplitude. Singularly indeed, so often as he opened his eyes the phantasmagorial figures would flit off and vanish, to return again and again. The doctor’s anticipations were in the sequel fulfilled only very indifferently.

Dr. Macgowan experimented upon himself in China, and with more satisfaction. His sensations assimilated much to those that come of inhaling nitrous oxide.

Note. In Winslow’s Journal of Psychology, 1859, is described in its details a very curious phenomenal case, that of a lady, who, for an organic sexual malady, had recourse occasionally to morphine. The case is the more remarkable in consideration of the extreme disproportion of symptoms to the inconsiderable amount of dose, which was 3 1/2  grains only.

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Traditional Methods Of “Eating” Opium

(From) “Opium And The Opium Appetite” by Alonzo Calkins, MD (1870)

Chapter V: Methodical Forms Of Opium Stimulation

“Que voulez-vous? Il est fait comme cela.” – Fr. Proverb

“Oh, that men should put an enemy into their mouths to steal away their brains!”- Othello.

A Gentleman’s Chandu Tools

The term Opodipsesis or Opodipsia is a legitimate coinage, being pathognomonic of the morbid condition; Opophagesis or Opophagia (Opium-eating) is a pseudonym. This latter term, however, being in accommodation to the popular idea – though indeed in no proper sense is opium ever taken by any eating process, unless hypothetically so – may serve for a technical convenience as well as any.

Among opium eaters two prevalent usages obtain: one consisting in swallowing a draught or a bolus, the other in firing a boulette or pea (the chandoo), and then inhaling the smoke through a pipe adapted to the purpose. Such pipe is known in China by the appellative yen-tsiang or opium-pistol. The people of the Flowery Kingdom universally smoke the chandoo; in Persia and the Levant they swallow the lozenge.

In the base of the bowl is a chink for transmitting the smoke into a stem, and above this is laid the pellet. The smoker, having taken the position of recumbency with a sideward inclination, the pipe in one hand and a small lamp for flame in the other, makes one full inspiration. Experienced operators swell the lungs to their full expansion, and after retaining the smoke a considerable time, as long practice enables them to do, finally exhale the fumes through the nostrils. When the spirituous preparation is used in such way, as by the grandees, a single whiff of the vaporized liquid permeates the entire cell area as with a thrill from a galvanic circuit.

For the novice a single pellet may suffice; not so for the practised smoker. Surgeon Hill describes a scene he witnessed on board the ship Sunda. The smoker, a young man of twenty-four years only, used eight pellets of the pea-size one after another, and all in the course of twenty minutes, making one long inspiration after each; he then fell into a profound sleep, which continued unbroken for three hours. The breathing was heavy and the circulation depressed, the pulsations being reduced by about one in twenty.

The progress towards stupefaction is less speedy as experience grows into a habit. Old stagers may require hours and many repetitions ere the coveted excitation is secured. Libermann, an attache of the Imperial army against the Yaous, and the author of surgical memoirs covering several years, speaks of pellets of 10-15 centigrammes in weight, 10, 20, or 30 of which, even up to 200, might be requisite to the complete somnolescence. Suppose the full influence attained in two hours, it will hold for four or five.

In certain regions modes altogether peculiar obtain. The Rajpoots, a military class exclusively, have the following fashion. On the arrival of a friend, the first question put to him is, “Umul Nya – Have you opiumed?” At their festive gatherings a big bowl of water, into which has been dropped a lump of opium, is set in the centre of the table. When the guests around have a dip each in turn, making a cup of the hollow of the hand. (Col. Tod, 1829.)

Another mode is observed in Siam. Here the company, be it opium or bhang that makes for the time the entertainment, sit squat in a circle, just like a Choctaw with his squaw and the rest, when settled in a ring around they are ready to pass from mouth to mouth the whiskey canteen.

The opium shops in the cities (where the hoi polloi, the “filth and scum” are prone to hive) are narrow rooms, secluded from outside observation, dingy and dank, with a solitary lamp suspended midway, apparently for the purpose of making darkness visible rather, and which are packed almost to suffocation. These dens of dissoluteness and debasement are but rarely visited by merchants and others of better class, unless with a view to greater privacy for the time.

“At the mansions of the rich (says Hue) there is usually found fitted up for the accommodation of friends, a private boudoir, richly ceiled, and garnished with superb adornments, such as art only can achieve and wealth procure; and here rich paintings, with choice scraps from Confucius, adorn the walls, and carvings in ivory with other articles of virtu, grace the tables. Here also is provided in chief the gilded opium pipe with all its appurtenances; and here host and guests, unrestrained by curious eyes, deliver themselves up without concern to the inebriating chandoo and its beatific transports.”

In Constantinople the bazaars are adorned in a style more accordant with the Asian pomp of the Ottoman. The visitor, having placed himself reclining upon a dais, the servitor in waiting, with a tactus eruditus such as ever designates the trained expert, deftly lays a single lozenge upon the tongue of the recipient, like as is the manner in a Christian country with the knight of the mortar and pestle, who “(Most mild of men!) Bids you put out your tongue, Then put it in again.”

As between pipe and bolus, in view of their pathologic consequences, says Surgeon Smith, there is little to choose. The chandoo being partially denarcotized, has the advantage in respect of purity, an advantage evenly counterbalanced if not more than that in this, that the area of cellular surface in the expanded lungs directly exposed to the narcotizing action is in excess so many times over of that of the stomach-membrane.

A third mode of bringing the system under the desired influence, is the Hypodermic method – subcutaneous injection by means of a syringe. In this way one-third the quantity that would ordinarily be taken by the mouth suffices, i.e. the same amount exerts a triple force. The practice, as favoring the habit, appears to be less hazardous in instances, but not certainly. Eulenberg in a case of disease made 1200 injections in all, and without manifest injury appertaining. For withdrawal he advises graduated reductions, with atropia incorporated in proportionately increased quantities. Any reliance placed upon this form of use, however, for its supposed comparative security, is likely to prove delusive.

Dr. Sewall of N. Y. has just reported two cases. In the first, the practice, after a two months’ continuance, was arrested, but not without much embarrassment; the second patient still continues on, writhing as helplessly as if, Laocoon-like, he were wound around in the coils of some monster-serpent. This gentleman, now of middle life, having suffered much from a diseased ankle, was advised (professionally) to use morphine hypodermically. The immediate effect being found most soothing and satisfactory, an indefinite continuance was suggested; and now, after a habituation for two years, the invalid is hopelessly delivered over, an abject slave to the habit, enervated in body and enfeebled in mind. The thigh of the affected limb is literally studded with punctures, to be counted by the score.

There is a case reported by Dr. Parrish, marvellous indeed in every view. The patient, a country physician, having now become an inmate of the Sanitarium, thus introduces himself before the public.

The Probe: by Joseph Parrish, M.D., Media, Penna., No. 1, 1869.

“Two years ago, I was suffering under a violent attack of neuralgia; meanwhile I could procure no sleep, not even any respite from suffering through the agency of any one of the recognized narcotics as employed in the usual modes. A medical friend suggested morphine, eighth-grain doses in solution by the subcutaneous mode. The relief experienced so sudden, so complete, I can never forget. Delivered of all pain, I was furthermore enjoying a repose indescribably entrancing. From the day on which these sensations occurred, I date my present bondage to a habit that has well-nigh ruined my health, prostrated my business, and blasted my hopes for coming time.”

This gentleman, of good position at home, with a moral constitution peculiarly sensitive under the pangs of self-reproach, and the mortification arising from having yielded to a fascination whose history he was sufficiently familiar with, now lay prostrate under the inertia of despair. The quantity he had fixed upon for the day was 5 grains regularly, and for 730 consecutive days he had used his instrument at home when time allowed, or again when abroad in his carriage; by the roadside; at the house of a patient; or during a halt at the tavern. The punctures, averaging several a day, were made irrespective of locality, though commonly near the seat of the central pain, and not unfrequently to the depth of an inch. They numbered altogether 2190. The morphine consumed amounted to 3650 grains, the equivalent of thrice such quantity taken in the ordinary way, that is to say, 23 ounces. For the sequel vide c. xxi.

Methodical Forms of Opium-Stimulation (Chapter 5, continued)

This being eminently an age of novelties and experimentations, there falls in here, not malapropos, a case quite unique in character certainly, and illustrative of what may be more delicately described perhaps by a euphemism, the Methodus per Inversionem. The case is contributed by Dr. L. of New York. Mrs. B., demi-veuve, age 25, of delicate habit and fair complexion, had been habituated to morphine three to four years, introducing solutions of the same intra-rectum, by means of a small acuminated glass syringe.

Repeated efforts to break off, with veratria for a substitute, had been of no permanent avail, for the appetite would not thus be put down. One day, in the height of the gold-excitement (Sept. 1869), the lady (a frequenter of the bourse) went down to Wall Street about ten o’clock in the morning, but without her usual supply which she in her hurry had left behind. Suddenly seized with overpowering tremors, she rushed into the first saloon she could find and swallowed a full tumbler of raw whiskey, and again a second after a little interval only, besides purchasing a bottle for use on the return home.

The doctor found her about 7 p.m., tremulous all over in body, and in great mental perturbation, for she had drunk, as appeared, a good deal besides the extra bottle, though without any inebriating feeling. Ale was advised for the night, and several pints were taken, but no sleep came. The case proving intractable (for “she must have her morphine or die” – so she said), was, after a few days’ treatment, abandoned. Her mode of using was (the account is her own), to pour into the palm of the hand a quantity – about 10 grains, as she illustrated by drawing a vial from beneath her pillow – then to transfer the same with water to another vial for solution, and from this to charge the instrument. The operation was repeated several times in the day, and abroad as well as at home; any by-place serving as a convenience, a side-room in a broker’s office, or a nook in a secluded street. Verily “knowledge by witty inventions” is not yet, it would appear, “past finding out.”

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Dr. Calkins Chapter IV: The Pharmacology Of Opium

The “War on Drugs” has been a great success in achieving its true intent – to fund the bloated bottomless budgets of untouchable government agencies, to pay outrageous salaries to squads of goons who otherwise couldn’t keep a minimum-wage job, to give half-human morons unrestricted license to kill, destroy and imprison millions of people, and to empower soul-dead halfwits with the freedom to practice their piggish racism.

As an intro to Chapter 4 of Dr. Calkins’ book, I thought that I would offer you a brief excerpt from an excellent article “Ethical and practical issues with opioids in life-limiting illness” By Robert Fine MD (in) Proceedings Of Baylor University Medical Center Journal 2007.

While Dr. Fine’s references are from the 1980s and 1990s, before the current “Opioid Epidemic”  whose advocates love to screech “Just one pill and you’re hooked”, the observations of these research studies are worth thinking about.

Quoting Dr Fine:

“… the reality is that opioids are rarely addictive in the setting of life-limiting illness. Substantial information in the peer-reviewed literature backs up this statement. For example:

  • In 1980, Porter and Jick reported on a prospective study of 12,000 hospitalized patients who received at least one opioid preparation for moderate to severe pain. They found only four reasonably well-documented cases of addictive behavior (1)

  • In 1981, Kanner and Foley noted that the medical use of opioids rarely leads to drug abuse or to iatrogenic opioid addiction among cancer patients (2)

  • In 1982, 181 health care professionals with an average of 6 years of experience who worked at 93 burn units and cared for at least 10,000 hospitalized patients reported no case of addiction in patients treated for burn pain (3)

  • In 1992, Schug et al reported only one case of addiction among 550 cancer patients who experienced pain and were treated with morphine for a total of 22,525 treatment days (4)

  • In 1992, Zenz et al reported no incidents of serious toxicity or addiction among 100 patients with diverse pain syndromes who received narcotics for prolonged periods (5)

  1. Porter J, Jick H. Addiction rare in patients treated with narcotics. N Engl J Med. 1980;302(2):123. [PubMed]

  2. Kanner RM, Foley KM. Patterns of narcotic drug use in a cancer pain clinic. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1981;362:161–172. [PubMed]

  3. Perry S, Heidrich G. Management of pain during debridement: a survey of U.S. burn units. Pain. 1982;13(3):267–280. [PubMed]

  4. Schug SA, Zech D, Grond S, Jung H, Meuser T, Stobbe B. A long-term survey of morphine in cancer pain patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1992;7(5):259–266. [PubMed]

  5. Zenz M, Strumpf M, Tryba M. Long-term oral opioid therapy in patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1992;7(2):69–77. [PubMed]

(From) “Opium And The Opium Appetite”, by Alonzo Calkins, MD 1870

Chapter IV: The Pharmacology Of Opium

“Incedis per ignes Suppositos cineri doloso.” – Horace.

O true Apothecary, thy drugs are quick!” — Romeo and Juliet.

Opium (from Onos, the Juice) – Ufiyoon in Arabic, Ufeent in Hindu, O-fu-jung in Chinese – is the crystalline liquid that exudes from the capsules of the Poppy, and what Galen has poetically denominated “Lachrymae papaveris” – poppy tears. All species of the family yield opium in some proportion; that known to commerce is in botanical nomenclature the Papaver Somniferum.

Opium by pharmaceutical classification ranks among the gums. It is stimulant and exhilarating, tonic and roborant, or anodyne and soporific, according to the indications for using, the quantity employed, and the period of use.

The purest extract is procured from the borders of the great Mediterranean basin; Europe and the United States (where the poppy has scarcely as yet secured a habitat) have their supplies mainly from India.

Bengal opium, often adulterated by admixture with foreign ingredients, is inferior in strength to that from Turkey. At the Exposition Universelle held in 1867, specimens from Persia and the Levant proved to be of double the strength as compared with others from India (Schroff). The opium of the Peninsula is bitter and nauseous to the taste, that from Western Asia is more acrid and heating. In France the imported gum, having been subjected to a process of depuration, is afterward compacted into masses of definite strength and inclosed in a stamped envelope of metal-foil. This is the “opium titre,” as known in the Paris market.

Prepared Opium, alias Smoking-opium, is properly an extract, procured by subjecting the crude gum to a thorough filtration with water assisted by heat for the menstruum. In China the process is conducted with the most scrupulous care, as anything of an inferior quality would be rejected by the chief purchasers, i.e. the grandees, positively and altogether. This article, known as the Chandoo (Tschandii), which constitutes about 54 percent of the original, is marked by a more pronounced development of the exhilarant and sedative properties, with a corresponding reduction upon the narcotic element. A similar preparation is the Ya-pieu-kao, made up of Indian and native opium in mixture.

The residuum of all (faex) is denominated Tye or Tinco, and there is further a refuse of a refuse, the Samshung.

In the region of the Bosphorus there is used a confection made by combination with aromatics, and fashioned into the lozenge form. Pellets of the sort are put up in packets bearing the label Mash-Allah or Maslach (“The great gift of God”), to be exposed for public sale (Ollivier).

Opium is variously combined, besides, with other narcotics. At Cairo is found a conserve, El Mogen (Magoon), in which hyoscyamus is the adjunct. In India it is cannabis resin, or the datura, or nux vomica. In Borneo opium and tobacco are often smoked together.

The Turks supplement the gum with the Sublimate of mercury to the extent even of 10 percent of the mass, and for the purpose of intensifying the stimulation. There was an opium eater at Broussa who used 40 grains of the sublimate. A more marvellous instance is the case of Suleyman Yeyen, a centenarian well known towards the close of the last century as a familiar pedestrian about the streets of Constantinople, who had attracted the notice of De Pouqueville, Hobhouse, and other Europeans. This veteran among the eaters, having used opium a lifetime until with him it had become effete, betook himself one day to the shop of a Jew, and procured a drachm of the mercurial. This Israelite in name that was (but not “an Israelite indeed”), having anxiously expected for over a day the reappearance of his singular customer, began to apprehend a summons from the Cadi to answer to the charge of complicity in a suicide, and forthwith shut up shop. To his intense relief the desired visitant returned after the lapse of two days, and for a fresh supply.

Just give it a try – free sample!

Morphia (Morphine) is an alkaloid extract, in which the sedative property is amply developed, but where the narcotic force is reduced to the minimum. Good opium yields 8 to 10 percent or more. This is the form preferred by the more intelligent classes, and what is held in superior favor by the sex. The “dear morphine” it is that commands the especial patronage of English ladies. An additional reason for preference is this, that in the protracted use less disturbance of the stomach eventuates.

Laudanum – in the French Codex an Alcoole – is a spirituous solution. This form, which in China is limited to the gentry rather, is in the U. S. the choice of plebeians, and of such as have broken down upon alcoholic potations. In Persia there is made a vinous liquor of similar character, the Coquemar or Cocomar (D’Herbelot). Laudanum has long been the favorite agent for effecting suicide, but of two hundred cases of direct attempts and accidental substitutions through mistake, as appears from a collation of cases made by the writer, laudanum was the form in 138 of them; and of 60 suicides pure, 46, or 4 out of every 5, were accomplished by the same means.

The record for England and Wales, 1863-67, is 682 out of an aggregate of 2,097 instances. In reference to the suicidal propensity generally it may be here observed, that when traceable to moral obliquities it is commonly consummated, if not by laudanum, then by some other poison proper; whereas cases that have their origination in pure despondency are oftener finished by the more summary process of self-strangulation.

Opium in conjunction with alcohol in any form operates with a revivified energy. This reciprocal action did not escape the notice of Galen. Champagne wine or anisette-cordial, for instance, would be an “extra hazardous” adjunct. In a goodly city of ours, among whose conspicuous adornments are the long colonnades of towering elms that enfilade its avenues, there was an Esculapian brother, whose wont was to prepare himself with liberal potations of the like preparatory to the expected soiree, and once mingled with the throng, to grow decidedly impulsive and loquacious in the general not only, but amusingly demonstrative and ingratiative in the particular.

Black-Drop (Quaker Drop) is an acetous tincture. This, as compared with laudanum, exerts a duplicated sedative action, but holds in narcotic influence an inferior place. The merits of this “drop” are certified to by a Philadelphian, a purchaser of the stimulus by the gallon for a good while, who, after ample trial, assures her friends that the preparation is less perturbative of the proper nerve energy, and is furthermore less damaging to the complexion.

McMunn’s Elixir is a denarcotized laudanum, prepared with ether for a menstruum. Extensively used empirically, and held in request by eaters, it has a large patronage in regular practice.

Paregoric is an aromatized laudanum, camphor being the adjunct. This elder elixir, originally intended for the infantile period, has long enjoyed a most intimate family hospitality.

Accept No Substitutes!

Godfrey’s Cordial. This and the preceding, with “Mistress Winslow’s Syrup,” constitute together a sort of triad of household idolship undisturbed by any rivalling interlopers. The monopoly of patronage so long secured to the first two named is now arrogated by the Soothing Syrup and its arriere-garde, “Mother Bailey’s Quieting Syrup.”

The basis of Winslow – “haud ignota loquor” – is morphine; what had been certified to before upon indubitable testimony is now assured by a recent analysis, which gives nearly one grain of the alkaloid to an ounce of the liquid. The dose for an infant, as per label, is at least five times over what ordinary prudence would authorize. This nostrum, now distributed broadcast over the country, has well-nigh distanced all competitors.

Such are the elixirs and syrups which, as administered whether by deluded mothers or crafty nurses, have soothed many and many a luckless infant into that state of quiet that knows no after-disturbing. Among our publicans there obtains only a very vague apprehension of the pregnant fact that the popular nostrums of the day, the cholera-drops, the pain-killers, the lung-troches and other pectorals, draped as they are in a flaunty incognito, or ensconced as they may be behind the objective screen of a caveat – enough, if mustered into line, to make up a regiment — owe whatever inherent virtue (if any) they possess to the omnipresent leaven, opium.

The stereotyped cautionary phrase, Caveat Emptor, should be the statutory appendix to every one of their trade-marks.

The manipulators in this species of manufacture – marauders upon society they are, for out of the life-blood of the people comes their bread – would appear to be the legitimate representatives, by a sort of apostolic succession, of a class described by Celsus, the Circulatores (“homines circumforanei”), who went about enticing and amusing the popellum or dregs by their high-and-low tumbling, and all, “lucri causa”, for filthy lucre’s sake.

The only difference between now and then appears in this – the originals circulated themselves, their imitators circulate placards.